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Fig. 4 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 4

From: Inhibitory effect of Phyllanthus urinaria L. extract on the replication of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus in vitro

Fig. 4

Phyllanthus urinaria koreanis extract inhibits replication of YMDD motif mutants. Southern blot analysis to examine the inhibitory effect of Phyllanthus extract on a HBV WT- or bi mutant-transfected HepG2 cells. HBV WT- or YMDD motif mutant-transfected cells were mock-treated (lane 1), or treated with ADV (100 μM, lane 2), LMV (4 μg/mL, lane 3), or Phyllanthus extract (100 μg/mL, lane 4) for 48 h. HBV DNA was then extracted from isolated core particles and analyzed by Southern blotting. ADV was used as a positive control. Core particles were detected as described in Fig. 2d. α-tubulin was used as a loading control. Graphs show the relative levels of HBV DL DNA in HBV WT- or YMDD motif mutant-transfected HepG2 cells after 48 h exposure to extract, LMV, or ADV (as measured by Image Gauge V4.0; Fuji film). Statistical significance was evaluated using Student’s t-test. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.005, relative to the respective HBV WT or mutant-transfected cells not treated with extract. j Amounts of core particles associated with HBV DNA as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. HBV DNA was extracted from core particles isolated from HBV WT- and LMV-resistant YIDD-, YSDD-, and YVDD-mutant-transfected HepG2 cells after 48 h exposure to different concentrations of Phyllanthus extract. *p < 0.005 and **p < 0.0005, relative to the respective HBV WT- or mutant-transfected but untreated cells

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