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Fig. 3 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 3

From: Inhibitory effect of Phyllanthus urinaria L. extract on the replication of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus in vitro

Fig. 3

Mutations within the YMDD motif of the HBV P protein, and HBV DNA synthesis, core particle formation, and HBsAg and HBcAg secretion in HBV WT- or YMDD motif mutant-transfected HepG2 cells. a Mutated sequences within the YMDD motif mutants. The mutated sequences are indicated by bold underlined letters. The substituted amino acid is indicated in bold italics. Y, tyrosine, M, methionine, D, aspartate, A, alanine; I, isoleucine; K, lysine; L, leucine; R, arginine; S, serine: T, threonine; V, valine. b HBV DNA synthesis and core particle formation in HBV WT- and YMDD motif mutant-transfected HepG2 cells. Southern blot and Western blot analyses of HBV DNA synthesis and core particle formation, respectively, in HBV WT- or YMDD motif mutant-transfected HepG2 cells was performed as described in Fig. 2a and d. Each transfection experiment was performed more than three times. Single-stranded and double-stranded linear, and partially double-stranded relaxed circular, DNA are marked as SS, DL, and RC, respectively. Relative levels of HBV DL DNA were quantified using Image Gauge V4.0. (Fuji film), and transfection efficiency normalized according to the level of luciferase expression. c ELISA to measure HBsAg or HBcAg secreted from HBV WT- and YMDD motif mutant-transfected HepG2 cells. At 3 days post-transfection, the culture supernatant was collected and the levels of secreted HBsAg and HBcAg were measured in an ELISA. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Statistical significance was evaluated using Student’s t-test. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.005, relative to HBV WT

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