Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Fig. 5 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 5

From: Valerenic acid and Valeriana officinalis extracts delay onset of Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced seizures in adult Danio rerio (Zebrafish)

Fig. 5

Interaction of valerian extracts or valerenic acid with phenytoin (PHT) or clonazepam (CLP). After 1 h of pretreatment and subsequent exposure to PTZ (3 mg/ml, 21.7 mM). a PHT (1 mg/ml, 3.9 mM) had no anticonvulsant effect in zebrafish. However, valerenic acid (VA, 37 μg/ml), ethanolic valerian extracts (ValE, 0.5 mg/ml), and aqueous valerian extracts (Val A, 5 mg/ml) and the co-administration of ValE and PHT significantly increased the latency. In contrast, there was no further increase in latency when PHT was co-administered with ValA or before VA. b All treatments increased significantly the latency in comparison to untreated fish (PTZ). The combination of clonazepam (5 μg/ml; 0.02 mM) with valerenic acid (37 μg/ml), ethanolic valerian extract (1 mg/ml) or aqueous valerian extract (5 mg/ml) increased the anticonvulsant properties of the individual treatments (p < 0.001). The dashed line represents the seizure latency in untreated fish. Data are mean ± SEM from three experiments with 8–21 fish for each treatment, ** p < 0.01 or *** p < 0.001 or **** p < 0.0001 vs untreated; +++ p < 0.001 vs treatments alone and PTZ

Back to article page