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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample

From: Electroacupuncture analgesia is associated with increased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in chronic tension-type headache: a randomized, sham controlled, crossover trial

  Sequence phase  
  Electroacupuncture first (n = 17) Sham first (n = 17) P
Age (years) 39.11 (±10.5) 41.44 (±10.5) 0.36
Formal education (years of study) 14.44 (±3.9) 14.21 (±2.9) 0.85
Clinical comorbidity 4 (22%) 2 (12.5%) 0.66
Smoking 1 (5.5%) 0 1.00
Pain on the 10-cm VAS 6.02 (±1.5) 6.50 (±1.4) 0.28
HIT-6 63.00 (±6.4) 61.44 (±5.2) 0.44
HDRS 7.83 (±3.8) 6.69 (±2.8) 0.33
Psychiatric disease 6 (33.3%) 4 (25%) 0.59
B-PCS 32.17 (±13.5) 27.81 (±15.1) 0.38
Helplessness 14.17 (±6.9) 12.25 (±7.1) 0.43
Magnification 7.11 (±3.4) 5.69 (±3.8) 0.26
Rumination 10.78 (±3.7) 9.88 (±5,03) 0.55
Serum BDNF (ng/mL) 42.67 (±34.6) 43.2 (±21.4) 0.95
Daily use of analgesics (Yes/No) 14/3 15/2 0.66
Dorflex® 10 12  
NSAID 4 2  
Acetaminophen 4 2 0.81
  1. Values are given as the mean (±SD) or as frequency (percentage of cases) (n = 34).
  2. Abbreviations:VAS Visual analog scale, HIT-6 headache impact test, HDRS Hamilton depression rating scale, BP-PCS Brazilian Portuguese pain catastrophizing scale, B-PCS pain catastrophizing scale validated for the Brazilian population, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Dorflex® (Sanofi Aventis, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 35 mg Orfenadrine citrate combined with 300 mg Metamizol (Dypirone) and 50 mg caffeine)).