Effects of F. mume on the activation of TLR4 and p38 MAPK signaling. (A and B) Representative western blots of TLR4, MyD88, phospho-p38 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and GAPDH. Densitometry was performed for TLR4, MyD88, phospho-p38 MAPK, and p38 MAPK normalized to GAPDH using Image J (v1.37) software. (A and B) The hippocampal levels of TLR4, MyD88, and phospho-p38 MAPK were increased in the BCCAo + Vehicle group (n = 10) (*) compared to the sham-operated group (n = 8). Treatment with F. mume (n = 8) decreased the hippocampal levels of TLR4, MyD88, and phospho-p38 MAPK increased by chronic BCCAo (#). Data were analyzed via ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. *, p < 0.05 versus the BCCAo + Vehicle group; #, p <0.05 versus the BCCAo + F. mume group.