Effects of F. mume on hippocampal expression level of inflammatory mediators in chronic BCCAo rats. (A) Representative western blots of COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6. Densitometry was performed for COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 normalized to GAPDH using Image J (v1.37) software. (B through D) The expression level of the inflammatory mediators (COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6) was increased in the BCCAo + Vehicle group (n = 10) compared to the sham-operated group (n = 8). Treatment with F. mume (n = 8) attenuated the increased level of the inflammatory mediators induced by chronic BCCAo in the hippocampus (#). Data were analyzed via ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. *, p < 0.05 versus the BCCAo + Vehicle group; #, p <0.05 versus the BCCAo + F. mume group.