Study Schematic. Total duration of the study was 8 weeks. Patients (10 adult cystic fibrosis patients and 5 healthy volunteers) were enrolled at T = 0 at which time blood, urine and buccal swabs were collected to establish baseline levels of lignans, cytokines, isoprostanes, and 8-oxo-dGuo. Urine and blood samples were drawn during each visit at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Buccal swabs were performed at weeks 0, 4, and 8 (4 weeks post-FS).