FS Modifies NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductase Gene Expression in Buccal Epithelium. Buccal swabs were performed at weeks 0, 4, and 8 during the study. Buccal epithelial cells were harvested for RNA isolation and subsequent qPCR analysis. Antioxidant gene expression levels were determined using Taqman specific primers and probes to Nqo1. Values are reported as fold change from pre-FS. Panel A displays comparison between healthy controls (n = 5) and all cystic fibrosis patients (n = 10). Panel B displays comparison between healthy controls (n = 5), cystic fibrosis patients with low lignans (n = 6), and cystic fibrosis patients with high lignans (n = 4).