Changes in (A) body weight, (B) foot pad thickness, and (C) gross lesions of the hind paws of DBA/1J mice with type-II collagen induced arthritis (CIA). (C-i) normal group (CIA was not induced); (C-ii) control group (CIA was induced); (C-iii) CIA-induced mice with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of drug methotrexate (MTX: 3 mg/kg of body weight; injected every third day from day 22 to day 42 after the 2nd booster injection); (C-iv) CIA-induced mice with i.p. injection of brazilin (10 mg/kg of body weight; injected daily from day 22 to day 42 after the 2nd booster injection). (D) Arthritis index scores (means ± standard errors). *p < 0.05 (brazilin-treated compared to control group); #p < 0.05 (MTX treated compared to control group). Statistical analysis employed Fisher’s protected least-difference post hoc test.