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Table 3 Effects of each plant constituent in NKB

From: Exploring new pharmacology and toxicological screening and safety evaluation of one widely used formulation of Nidrakar Bati from South Asia region

Plant Chemical components Effects of plant extract Effect of plant parts Effect of active principles
Nardostachys jatamansi DC Terpenoids [70], alkaloids [71], neolignans, 3 lignans [72], coumarins [73], other compounds [74,75]. 50% rhizomes ethanol extract – hepatoprotective [76], liver damage protection in vivo [77], hypolipidaemic effects in vivo [78], antiarrhythmic activity [79]. Hexane extract hair growth activity Rhizome preparation of medicinal oils, [80] to promote growth of hair [79], imparts blackness [79]. Essential oil (from the roots) fungi toxic activity [80]. Antimicrobial [81]. Antifungal [82]. Hypotensive [83] Antiarrhythmic [84] anticonvulsant activity [85]. BR606 bone sorption inhibitor for the treatment of osteoporosis and hypercalcemia [86] jatamansone (valeranone) hypotensive and tranquilizing agent, [87] antiarrhythmic and anticonvulsant agent [84] sedative activity Jatamansic acid hair growth activity
Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, phlobatannins, phenols, resins, saponins sterols, tannins terpenes different alkaloids (monoterpenoid indole alkaloid family): ajmaline, ajmalicine, ajmalimine, deserpidine, indobine, indobinine, reserpine, reserpiline, rescinnamine, rescinnamidine, serpentine, serpentinine, yohimbine. ascorbic acids, riboflavin, thiamine, niacin [88] Same as effect of active principles Root and rhizome high blood pressure, mental agitation, epilepsy, traumas, anxiety, excitement, schizophrenia, sedative insomnia, insanity 3,4,5-trimethyl benzoic acid ester of reserpic acid, an indole derivative of 18-hydroxy yohimbine type: natural tranquillizing effect. [89,90] Serpentine, type II topoisomerase inhibitor, antipsychotic properties [91,92] Alkaloid, ajmalicine: function of smooth muscle, prevent strokes and helps, in lowering blood pressure [93] Rescinnamine ACE inhibitor [94] Alkaloid Yohimbine selective alpha-adrenergic antagonist alpha-blocker, diabetes [95] flavonoids anti-inflammatory activity
Canscora decussata (Roxb.) Schult. Alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics phenolic compounds, xanthones, triterpenoids pentaoxygenated, hexaoxygenated, dimeric xanthones, bitter substances, oleoresin, mangiferin 1,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy (X), 1-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy (VII), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-6-methoxy (II), 1,3,8-trihydroxy-7-methoxy (III), 1,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy (XI), 1-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxy (VIII), 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy (XIII), 1,8-dihydroxy-3,6,7-trimethoxy (XII), 1-hydroxy-3,6,7,8-tetramethoxy (IX), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy (XIV), 1,3,7-tetrahydroxy (XV), 1,3,6,7,8-pentahydroxy (XVI) xanthones Petroleum extract CNS depression decreased motor activity, sedation, diminished response to external stimuli mangiferin (50 mg/kg) potentiate subnarcotic effect. mangiferin inhibition of reserpine-induced ptosis, sedation, depression of locomotor activity [96] ethanolic extract (400 mg/kg) reduce the neuromuscular coordination indicative of the muscle relaxant activity [97] crude fine powder and alcoholic extraction hypnotic activity [98] chloroform-soluble fraction of ethanolic extract antimicrobial [99] aqueous preparation activation of cell adhesion molecules [100] Extract antiinflammatory activity [101] spermicidal activity [102] Same as effect of extract and active principles Total xanthones CNS depression polyoxygenated xanthones antimicrobial mangiferin; Acute toxicity, CNS stimulation, mangiferin induced tremors, pilo erection, compulsive gnawing, increased motor activity mangiferin and the total xanthones (50 mg/kg) induce pentobarbitol sleeping time, transient positive inotropic effect no analgesic activity no diuretic effect (100 mg/kg) no significant effects dog’s carotid blood pressure, respiration, intestinal movements [103] magostin-3,6-di-O-glucoside and mangiferin, a C-glucoside (roots extract) protection against liver injury in vivo [104] mangiferin anti-necrosis in vivo, sedation and ptosis in vivo, potentiation of amphetamine toxicity in vivo, potentiation of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) effect in vivo, potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan effects in vivo, potentiation of subanalgesic dose of morphine in vivo (Bhattacharya et al.)
Phyllanthus emblica L. Fixed oils, phosphatides, essential oils, tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, glycosides Fatty acids: linolenic, linoleic, oleic, stearic, palmitic, myristic acids. major tannins: D-glucose, D-fructose, D-myo-inositol, D-galacturonic acid, D-arabinosyI, D-rhamnosyl, D-xylosyI, D-glucosyI, D-mannosyl, D-galactosyI residues- sugars, Emblicanin A Emblicanin B, Pedunculagin, punigluconin Other compounds: gallic acids, amlaic acid, arginine, aspartic acid, astragallin, β-carotene, β-sitosterol, chebulagic acid, chebulic acid, chebulaginic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagic acid, corilagin, cysteine, ellagic acid, emblicol, ibberellins, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, kaempferol, leucodelphinidin, methionine, phenylalanine, phyllantidine, phyllemblic acid, quercetin, riboflavin, rutin, thiamin, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, zeatin Aqueous infusion and decoction: strong antibacterial activity [105] leaf extract antimalarial potency [106]. The chloroform soluble fraction of methanolic extract antimicrobial activity in gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria strong cytotoxicity [107] hydro-methanolic extract normalize the impaired antioxidant status [108] fruit extract antidiarrheal spasmolytic activities [109] water fraction of fruits butanol extract potential anti-inflammatory [110]. Extract affected the mode of absorption as well reduces serum, aortic and hepatic Cholesterol [111] aqueous extract natural killer cell activity antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity [112] aqueous extract anticancer effect [113]. Extract chondroprotective Effects [114] Fruits indigestion and constipation [115]. Decoction of leaves fever fresh fruit refrigerant. seeds cooling remedy in bilious affections nausea, fevers [116] 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose: anti-viral activity against anti-herpes simplex virus [117] ascorbic acid, tannins and polyphenolic constituents: antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity [118] tannins, corigalin and its analogue anti-atherosclerosis [119] flavonoid quercetin hepatoprotective [120] phenolic compounds The antiproliferative activity of tumor cell lines, MK-1, HeLa, and B16F10 cells phytosterol compounds cytotoxic effect in tumor and non-tumor cell lines [121]
Datura stramonium Linn. Saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine, scopolamine tigloidin, aposcopolamine, apoatropin, hyoscyamine N-oxide, scopolamine N-oxide17-20. 6â-ditigloyloxytropane, 7-hydroxyhyoscyamine [122] atropine, hyoscamine scopolamine [123] tropane alkaloids, 3-phenylacetoxy-6, 7-epoxynortropane, 7-hydroxyapoatropine, The alkaloids scopoline, 3-(hydroxyacetoxy) tropane, 3-hydroxy-6-(2-ethylbutyryloxy) tropane, 3â-tigloyloxy-6-hydroxytropane, 3, 7-dihydroxy-6-tigloyloxytropane, 3-tigloyloxy-6-propionyloxytropane, 3 phenylacetoxy-6,7-epoxytropane, 3-phenylacetoxy-6-hydroxytropane, aponor scopolamine, 3â, 6â-ditigloyloxytropane, 7-hydroxyhyoscyamine [124]. Hygrine, 3á, 6â-Ditigloyloxy-7-hydroxytropane, 6-Hydroxyhyoscyamine, Pseudotropine, 3á-Tigloyloxytropane, Hydroxy-6-tigloyloxytropane, Phenylacetoxytropane, 3-Tigloyloxy-6-(2-methylbutyryloxy) tropane, Hyoscyamine, 3-Tigloyloxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-7-hydroxytropane, Scopolamine, Tropinone, Scopine, 6-Hydroxyacetoxytropane, 3,6-Diacetoxytropane, 3-Tigloxyloxy-6-acetoxytropane, 3-Tigloyloxy-2-methylbutyryloxytropane, 3á, 6â-Ditiglotoxytropane, 3-Acetoxy-6-isobutyryloxytropan, 3-(2-Phenylpropionyloxy) tropane, Littorine, 6-Hydroxyapoatropine, 3â, 6â-Ditigloyloxy-7-hydroxytropane, 3-Tropoyloxy-6-acetoxytropane, 3,6-Dihydroxytropane, 3â-Tigloyloxytropane, 3-Tigloyloxy-6-propionyloxy-7- hydroxytropane, 3á-Apotropoyloxytropane, Aposcopolamine, 3â, 6â-Ditigloyloxytropane, 3-(3′-Acetoxytropoyloxy) tropane, 3á-Tigloyloxy-6-hydroxytropane, Tropine, 3-Acetoxytropane, 3-Hydroxy-6-acetoxytropane, 3-Hydroxy-6-methylbutyryloxytropane, 3-Tigloloxy-6-isobutyryloxytropane, Aponorscopolamine, 7-Hydroxyhyoscyamine, Meteloidine, 3â, 6â-Ditigloyloxytropane. Extract asthma treatment The ethanol extracts (leaf and seed) acaricidal, repellent oviposition deterrent [125] methanol extracts antibacterial [126]. Extract anticancer activity produce vomiting, hypertension, loss of consciousness that interacts with anti-cholinergic drugs [127] ethanolic extracts anti-inflammatory activity [128]. Ethanolic extracts of leaves larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities [129]. Extract effective in countering the toxicity of the cypermethrin pesticide toxicity [130]. Antifungal activity [131]. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents [132] ethanol extract of the leaves increased Serum creatinine levels, affect on biochemical and haematological parameters [133] extract treatment of organophosphate poisoning [134] Same as effect of extract and active principles Alkaloids (organic esters): anticholinergic agents [135] alkaloids atropine and scopolamine diarrhoea hypoactivity, liver weight loss [136]
Cannabis sativa Linn. Terpenes and sesquiterpenes: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD),α-Pinene, Myrcene, Linalool, Limonene, Trans-β-ocimene, α-Terpinolene, Trans-caryophyllene, α-Humulene, Caryophyllene-oxide [137]. Spiro compounds, viz., cannabispiran, dehydrocannabispiran, and beta- cannabispiranol, dehydrostilbenes-3-[2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) ethyll-5-methoxyphenol and canniprene, acylated 0-glucoside of apigenol, 0-glycosides of vitexin, isovitexin, orientin (leaves); a-bergamotene, b-caryophyllene, trans-b-and a- farnesene isomers, a-humulene, g-elemene, a-gurjunene, b-bisabolene, b- caryophyllene-epoxide and a-bisabolol, cannabinoids, tetrahydro-cannabinol, cannabinol, n-alkanes ranging from C, to C, 2-methyl alkanes, 3-methyl alkanes, dirnethyl alkanes, a-pinene, myrcene, limonene, terpinolene, longifolene, humulene epoxides I & 11, m-mentha-1,8 (9)-dien-5-01 (essential oil from leaves and flowers); friedelin epifridelinol, N-p-hydroxy-b-phenylethy1)-p-hydroxy-trans- cinnamamide, stigmast-4-en-3-one, campest-4-en-3-one, stigmast-4,22-diene-3- one, stigmast-5-en-3b-ol-7-one, campest-5-en-3b-01-7-one, stigmast-5,22-dien- 3b-01-7-one-cannabisativine, b-sitosterol, carvone, dihydrocarvone and some unidentified bases (root); cannabigerol, cannabichromene, 1-dehydro-tetra- hydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid (3-methyl-6-isopropenyl-4$-pentyl-2$,6$- dihydroxy-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrobipheny1-3$-carboxylic acid), its acetate, cannaoidiol, cannabinol, tetrahydrocannabinol, trans-cinnamic acid, n-nonacosane, eugenol, guaiacol, cannabidivarin, tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabivarichromene, L(+)- isoleucine betaine, zeatin and zeatin nucleoside, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, acyl derivative of apigenol, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, canabitriol, 22-0-glucopyranosylvitexin, 22-0-glucopyranosylorientin, orientin, cannabispirol, acetylcannabispiral, cannabicoumaronone, 9-dehydrocannabinol, cannabitetrol, isocannabispiran, cannabifuran, dehydrocannabifuran, cannabitriol, 3,5,4$-trihydroxybibenzyl, anhydrocannabisativine, cannabichromene, trans-delta-8-tetra-hydrocannabinol, 4-hydroxymethyl benzoate and 4-hydroxy-n-propyl benzoate, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, dihydrostilbenes-cannabistilbenes (plant and seed) [138] Major toxic effects of cannabis on brain and lungs. Leaves convulsions, otalgia, abdominal disorders, malarial fever, dysentery, diarrhoea, skin diseases, hysteria, insomnia, gonorrhoea, colic, tetanus hydrophobia excessive use causes dyspepsia, cough, impotence, melancholy, dropsy, restlessness insanity. The bark tonic, inflammations, haemorrhoids and hydrocele. The inflorescence of female plant intoxicating, stomachic, soporific, abortifacient convulsions. Seeds carminative, astringent, aphrodisiac, antiemetic anti-inflammatory. The resin is smoked to allay hiccough and bronchitis insomnia, sick headaches, neuralgia, migrain, mania, whooping cough, asthma, dysuria relieving pain in dysmenorrhoea and menorrhagia Cannabigerolic Acid: Antibiotic cannabigerol: antibiotic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, GABA uptake inhibitor, reduces keratinocytes proliferation in psoriasis, Effective against MRSA, cannabichromene: antibiotic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic (weak), cannabidolic Acid: antibiotic cannabidiol: anxiolytic, antipsychotic, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antispasmodic, Anti-emetic, Antifungal, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antagonizes effects of THC, Decreases sebum/sebocytes proliferation, effective against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, pro-apoptotic against breast cancer cell lines Cannabinol: Sedative, Antibiotic, Anti-convulsant, Anti-inflammatory, Decreases breast cancer resistant protein, effective against MRSA, Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol: Euphoriant, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antiemetic, Antipruritic, Bronchodilator Delta 9 tetrahydrocannabivarin: Analgesic, Euphoriant, Anticonvulsant in vitro [139,140]
Acorus calamus Linn. β-Asarone (isoasarone), α-Asarone, elemicine, cis-isoelemicine, cis and trans isoeugenol and their methyl ethers, camphene, P-cymene, β-gurjunene, α-selinene, β-cadinene, camphor, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, α-calacorene, acorone, acorenone, acoragermacrone, 2-deca-4,7-dienol,shyobunones, isohyobunones, calamusenone, linalool, pre-isocalamendiol [139] Acoradin, galagin, 2,4,5-trimethoxy benzaldehyde, 2,5-dimethoxybenzoquinone, calamendiol, Spathulenol, sitosterol Ethanolic and aqueous extract and methanolic extract antibacterial [139,141] extract asthma [142]. The ethyl acetate fraction hypoglycemic, hypolipidemia [143]. Extract inflammatory activity ethanolic extract of the rhizome: Antiulcer cytoprotective activity [144] ethanolic extract of rhizome immunosuppressive, moderately hypotensive respiratory depressant properties extract of the rhizome Antibacterial activity [145] Leaf and rhizome antibacterial activity coconut oil extract of the rhizomes 45% inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and 61% inhibition using the granuloma pouch method [146] β-asarone compound fraction (crude methanolic extract of rhizomes): antifungal activity [147] Phenolic compounds: antioxidant activity [148] β-asarone and essential oil of the rhizomes: diarrhea and dysentery [149] The essential oil and alcoholic extract of the rhizomes: Analgesic activity [150] The essential oil: anti-inflammatory activity; The isolated constituted of the rhizomes, asarone and β-asarone: anticonvulsant activity [151,152] Acorus calamus oil induce malignant tumours, due to β-asarone in vitro and in vivo [152]
  1. Chemical components presence in NKB may have potential interaction to produce the adverse reaction, side effects and harmful chemistry. The reported active principles may produce the probable mechanism of action of NKB and suggest the undesired herb from its chemical composition.