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Table 2 Grade evidence profile of auricular acupuncture vs sham or placebo method comparison

From: Auricular acupuncture with seed or pellet attachments for primary insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

No. of studies Design Quality assessment No. of patients   Effect Quality Importance
Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other Treatment Control Relative (95% CI) Absolute  
Effective Rate (Measured with: CCDM-3 )
1 RCT no serious limitation serious2 no serious indirectness serious4 none6 28/30 (93.3%) 20/30 (66.7%) RR 1.40 (1.07 to 1.83) 267/1000 (47 ~ 553) LOW IMPORTANT
Total Sleep Duration minutes (Measured with: EEG, PSQI Sleep Diary, or wrist actigraphy; Better indicated by higher values)
4 RCT serious1 no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness serious5 none6 145 83 MD 56.46 (45.61 ~ 67.31) LOW CRITICAL
Sleep Efficiency % (Measured with: International Standard Sleep Efficiency; Better indicated by higher values)
4 RCT serious1 serious3 no serious indirectness serious5 none6 145 183 MD 12.86 (9.67 ~ 16.06) VERY LOW CRITICAL
Global Score On Psqi points (Measured with: PSQI; range of scores: 0-21; Better indicated by lower values)
5 RCT serious1 no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness no serious imprecision none6 337 325 MD -3.41 (-3.93 ~ -2.89) MODERATE IMPORTANT
Mean Number Of Awakennings No. (Measured with: EEG, PSQI Sleep Diary, or wrist actigraphy; Better indicated by lower values)
3 RCT serious1 serious3 no serious indirectness serious5 none6 131 70 MD -3.27 (-6.30 ~ 0.25) VERY LOW IMPORTANT
Sleep Onset Latency minutes (Measured with: EEG, PSQI Sleep Diary, or wrist actigraphy; Better indicated by lower values)
3 RCT serious1 no serious inconsistency no serious indirectness serious5 none6 134 73 MD -10.35 (-14.37 ~ -6.33) LOW IMPORTANT
  1. 1. Methodological quality of included studies was not high.
  2. 2. With only one study involved, there were no heterogeneity assessment results for evaluation.
  3. 3. The pooled outcome revealed high heterogeneity.
  4. 4. The pooled (cumulative) sample size was lower than the optimal information size (OIS) and/or the total enrollment was less than 400 (continuous data).
  5. 5. The pooled (cumulative) sample size was lower than the optimal information size (OIS) and/or the total enrollment was less than 300 (dichotomous data).
  6. 6. The number of included studies is not enough to estimate publication bias temporarily.
  7. Abbreviations:
  8. 95% CI: 95% Confidence Interval.
  9. CCMD-3: Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, 3rd version;
  10. MD: Mean Difference
  11. EEG: Electroencephalogram.
  12. PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.
  13. RR: Risk Radio.