Effects of SMYGT on the HUVEC-mediated angiogenic process in vitro. (A) HUVECs were cultured in the presence and absence of SMYGT for 24 h and measured using an automatic cell counter to determine cell growth and viability. (B) Scratches were applied to the lawn of HUVECs, and then cells were cultured in the presence or absence of SMYGT. After 12 h, the relative cell motility was determined by analyzing digital images. (C) HUVECs were resuspended in culture medium containing various concentrations of SMYGT and then inoculated in culture plates that were pre-coated with Matrigel. After 2 h, the adherent cells were fixed, stained, and then counted under a microscope. (D) Serum-starved HUVECs were inoculated into the cell culture inserts pre-coated with Matrigel and then cultured in the presence or absence of SMYGT. After 16 h, chemotactic HUVECs that invaded through the Matrigel were stained and counted under a microscope. Sulforaphane (Sulfo) was included in these assays for a positive control drug. All data, except viability, are presented as the relative means ± S.D. of triplicate experiments compared to the vehicle treatment group. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.