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Table 1 Descriptions of the models

From: How parents choose to use CAM: a systematic review of theoretical models

Model Description References
Andersen's Sociobehavioural Model (SBM) Sets out three sequential components which mitigate healthcare use. The first most indirect, are predisposing factors including beliefs, sociodemographics and characteristics which motivate the healthcare service use. The next component, more directly related to behaviour, are enabling factors which allow and give access to healthcare services (e.g. income, physical location, insurance). The final most proximal component is medical need, including the objective and subjective experience of symptoms of illness [65]
Consumer Decision-Making model (CDM) Has three components: first is external influences: sociocultural influences on beliefs, knowledge and behaviours. Second is the consumer decision-making process; including psychological influences (values, beliefs, attitudes, personality) which form the main part of the decision making process. Finally, the post decision behaviour consists of the behaviour itself and an evaluative comparison of the actual experience with the anticipated experience. [51]
Health locus of control (HLoC) The HLoC identifies the extent to which people perceive their health, treatment, course of illness and other health related factors, to be under their control or external to them (e.g. fate, doctor, others). [55, 61]
Transtheoretical model (TTM) TTM engenders five stages:
1. Precontemplation (no intention to make change)
2. Contemplation (consideration of making change)
3. Preparation (effecting small steps to begin change)
4. Action (carrying out the change to its full extent)
5. Maintenance (sustaining the change over time).
The distinguishing characteristics of this model are firstly that moving through the stages is not necessarily a linear process, but it is necessary to move through all changes in order to incur sustained change; Secondly, the balance of pros and cons of carrying out a given behaviour, will determine the stage of change in which the individual finds him/her self.
Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) TPB attempts to explain behavioural intentions as predicted from three major sources: attitudes, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms. Attitudes include beliefs and expectations about a particular behaviour and the extent to which consequences are seen as desirable. Subjective norms are the beliefs one has about the expectations of 'significant others' and the motivation to comply with these. Perceived behavioural control is the extent to which one expects the behaviour to be easy or difficult and whether they perceive themselves to have the ability to carry out such a behaviour – often equated with self efficacy [57].
The self-regulatory model (SRM) The SRM explains how individuals have 'illness beliefs' or 'illness perceptions' about their condition. These are predefined cognitions which represent illness characteristics and coping strategies, related to perceived cause, effects, consequences, duration and sources of control or cure. People go on to form a representation of their coping alternatives, which may be represented as 'treatment beliefs'. [70, 93]
Braden's Self-help model Braden's self-help model specifies central variables and relationships involved in a learned response to chronic illness and includes the following elements: side-effects burden, uncertainty, perceived enabling skills, self help and quality of life. Its utility lies in its ability to form the connection between individual's use of enabling skills to manage their illness. [72]