Effect of the decoction of A. marmelos on bacterial adherence to HEp-2 cells. (A) E. coli B170 microcolonies (arrows) on HEp-2 cells in medium alone. (B) E. coli B170 microcolonies (arrow heads) on HEp-2 cells when incubated in medium with 10% dilution of the decoction. (C) Adherence of E. coli B170 to the HEp-2 cells in the pre-incubation (HEp-2 cells incubated with the decoction prior to infection) and the competitive (HEp-2 cells incubated with the decoction simultaneously with the infection) protocols. C: Control, adherence to HEp-2 cells in medium alone; L1: Adherence to HEp-2 cells when pre-incubated in medium with 2.5 mg/ml lactulose; L2: Adherence to HEp-2 cells in medium with 15 mg/ml lactulose in the competitive protocol; D: Adherence to HEp-2 cells in medium with decoction. Values represent mean ± standard error (n = 3) of percentage adherence relative to control (100%); * P < 0.05.