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Table 1 Antioxidant activities of bee products and antioxidants.

From: Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities

  IC50 (95% confidence limit)
Compounds H2O2 O2 ·- HO·
Brazilian green propolis (μg/ml)    
   WEP 0.24 (0.15–0.34) 0.91 (0.64–1.21) 4.12 (3.31–5.17)
   EEP 2.48 (1.65–4.05) 0.79 (0.56–1.04) 5.83 (4.99–6.87)
Other bee products (μg/ml)    
   Pollen 9.99 (8.01–12.3) 8.44 (6.64–10.4) 57.6 (46.5–69.9)
   Royal jelly > 100 > 100 > 100
Constituents of propolis (μM)    
   3,4-di-O-Caffeoylquinic acid 0.52 (0.36–0.70) 0.25 (0.18–0.32) 1.86 (1.50–2.31)
   3,5-di-O-Caffeoylquinic acid 0.33 (0.16–0.53) 0.18 (0.13–0.24) 2.02 (1.51–3.07)
   3-Caffeoylquinic acid 0.22 (0.11–0.35) 0.16 (0.11–0.22) 2.38 (1.83–3.19)
   Artepillin C 1.44 (1.16–1.76) 2.01 (1.38–2.84) 51.9 (39.1–73.1)
   Baccharin > 100 > 100 > 100
   Coumaric acid > 100 > 100 59.4 (39.1–102.7)
   Drupanin 7.35 (5.28–10.0) 5.24 (3.20–8.00) 26.4 (17.4–43.4)
   Caffeic acid 0.28 (0.22–0.36) 0.13 (0.11–0.16) 1.82 (1.50–2.23)
   Quinic acid > 100 > 100 > 100
Constituents of royal jelly (μM)    
   10-Hydroxy decenoic acid > 100 > 100 > 100
Antioxidants (μM)    
   Trolox 0.29 (0.11–0.59) 0.36 (0.13–0.75) 1.30 (0.97–1.77)
   NAC 1.84 (1.02–4.37) 2.40 (1.46–4.42) > 100
   Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) 1.53 (1.38–1.70) 0.70 (0.50–0.94) 2.07 (0.98–5.81)
  1. IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration, WEP: water extract of propolis, EEP: ethanol extract of propolis, NAC: N-acetyl cysteine,