Time-kinetic and concentration-response data for antioxidant activities of Brazilian green propolis towards production of various ROS (H
) in term of fluorescence intensity. (A-C) Water extract of propolis (WEP) was added to RGC-5 cultures for 1 h, followed by addition of CM-H2DCFDA (10 μM) or APF (10 μM) for 20 min. "Control" exhibited no ROS stimulation, while vehicle plus ROS induced ROS stimulation that was concentration-dependently reduced by WEP treatment. Kinetics of the DCFH oxidation induced by (A) H2O2, (B) O2
·-, and (C) kinetics of the APF oxidation induced by HO· in RGC-5. (D-F) Integrals of ROS production were calculated from the time-kinetics curves (see A-C), as described in "Methods". ROS were (D) H2O2, (E) O2
·-, (F) HO·. (D-F) WEP. (G-I) EEP. Data are shown as mean ± S.E.M., n = 6. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. vehicle plus ROS. V: vehicle, W: WEP, E: EEP.