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Table 1 Antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of seeds

From: Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

Bacteria Extracts/Zone of inhibition (in mm)
  P 1a P 2a P 3a
  Ia IIa IIIa Ia IIa IIIa Ia IIa IIIa
EF 17 24 15 13 22 - 13 22 10
SA 23 25 18 22 24 - 22 23 12
EC - 12 - 14 15 - 16 17 -
KP 1 - - - - - - - - -
KP 2 - - - - - - - - -
PA 1 - - - - - - - - -
PA 2 21 24 20 21 24 17 22 24 19
ST - - - 11 12 - - - -
STM 1 - 12 12 - - - - - -
STM 2 13 20 - 14 14 - 11 12 -
SF - 14 - 18 18 - 14 15 -
Mean 6.73 11.91 5.91 10.27 11.73 1.55 8.82 10.18 3.73
± SD 9.645 10.492 8.420 8.776 10.061 5.126 9.097 10.381 6.724
  1. a P1: Anethum graveolens; P2: Foeniculum vulgare; P3: Trachyspermum ammi
  2. Aqueous extracts (I: Ambient water; II: Hot water; III: Boiling water extract)
  3. -: no zone of inhibition
  4. EF: Enterococcus faecalis; SA: Staphylococcus aureus; EC: Escherichia coli; KP 1: Klebsiella pneumoniae 1; KP 2: K. pneumoniae 2; PA 1: Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1; PA 2: P. aeruginosa 2; ST: Salmonella typhi; STM 1: Salmonella typhimurium 1; STM 2: S. typhimurium 2; SF: Shigella flexneri