Effects of the extracts on HIV-1 and HIV-1 gene expression. A. HIV-Luc viruses pseudotyped T-tropic HIV-1 HXB2 envelope (HXB2) were incubated with 10 μg/ml extracts for 2 hr and then used to infect U87.CD4.CXCR4 cells. Cells were harvested 48 hr for the Luc activity assay 48 hr after infection. Infection with heat-inactivated HIV-Luc/HXB2 viruses (Δ Virus) was included as the control. B. U87.CD4.CXCR4 cells were infected with HIV-Luc viruses pseudotyped T-tropic HIV-1 HXB2 envelope (HXB2) or without envelope (-) for 2 hr and then removed of the remaining input viruses by repeated washes with fresh medium. Then, the infected cells were cultured for 48 hr in the presence of the extracts (10 μg/ml) and then harvested for the Luc activity assay. DMSO (0.1%) was also included as a solvent control for the extracts, while 0.5 μM AZT was included as a positive control. The data were mean ± SEM of triplicate experiments.