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Table 1 Animals species used in popular medicine in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco State, Brazil.

From: Animal-based remedies as complementary medicines in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Brazil

Famíly/species/local name Number of citation Part used and mode of administration Disease (or illness)
Insects    
Apidae    
Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758) – Africanised honey bee, "abelha italiana" 1 Honey (3) Cough, catarrh
Frieseomelitta varia (Lepeletier, 1836) – Bee, "Abelha moça branca" 1 Honey (4) Gonorrhea
Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811) – a stingless bee, "uruçú" 3 Honey (3, 4) Fatigue (3, 4), Cancer (3), Weakness (3), Sexual problems (3), Cough (3)
Partamona cupira (Smith) – a stingless Bee, "Abelha cupira" 3 Honey (1, 4), Bee wax (11) Leucoma, "Slightly clean", Cuts, Wounds, Cough, Catarrh, "toady" (Fungal buccal Infection), Sinusitis, Effusion (11)
Scaptotrigona sp. – Bee, "Abelha canudo" 1 Honey (3) Hernia
Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, 1811 – Bee, "Abelha jati" 1 Honey (1) "Ervilhida" (Leucoma)
Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793) – a stingless bee, "arapuá 1 Honey (4) Fatigue, effusion
Termitidae    
Nasutitermes macrocephalus (Silvestri, 1903) – Termite, "Cupim de aroeira" 1 Whole animal (3) Asthma
Blattidae    
Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) – American cockroach, "barata" 1 Whole animal (17) Avoiding pregnancy
Muscidae    
Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) – House fly, "Mosca" 1 Whole animal (16) Hair erysipelas
Echinoderms    
Oreasteridae    
Oreaster reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758) – Starfish, "estrela-do-mar" 1 Whole animal (12) Asthma
Fish    
Erythrinidae    
Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794) – Trahira, "traíra 1 Fat (4) Sore throat
Syngnathidae    
Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933) – Longsnout seahorse, "cavalo-marinho" 2 Whole animal (12, 19) Asthma
Amphibians    
Bufonidae    
Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002) 2 Secretions (14), Fat (4) Gastritis (14), cancer (4, 14)
Reptiles    
Alligatoridae    
Caiman latirostris (Daudin, 1801) – Cayman, "jacaré-do-papo-amarelo" 1 Leather (13) Epilepsy
Chelidae    
Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812) – Geoffroy's side-necked turtle, "cágado" 5 Fat (1) In-grown nail, earache, eczema, articulation problems, wounds
Iguanidae    
Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758) – Common Iguana, "Camaleão" 2 Fat (1) Body aches, wounds
Teiidae    
Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839) – Teju lizard, "tegu", "tejuaçú" 5 Fat (1, 4) Wounds (1), sore throat (1,4), earache (1), perforation (1)
Testudinidae    
Chelonoidis denticulata (Linnaeus, 1766) – Yellow-footed tortoise, "jabuti" 1 Urine (1), Fat (4) Ear ache (1), asthma (4), pains (1)
Viperidae    
Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 – South American rattlesnake, "Cascavel" 6 Fat (1, 4) Rheumatism, swellings, Cancer, Bone aches, Gastritis, eczema, wounds, backache
Birds    
Anatidae    
Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 – Mallard, "Pata" 1 Eggs (6) General weaknesses, Sexual weakness, nervous disturbances
Ciconiidae    
Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1793) – Black vulture, "Urubu" 1 Feather and liver (15) Alcoholism
Corvidae    
Cyanocorax cyanopogon (Wied-Neuwied, 1821) – White-naped Jay, "Pássaro cancão" 1 Beliefs ("simpatia") (20) Asthma
Family – Not Identified    
Unidentified species – Hummingbirds, "Beija-flor" 1 Whole animal (2), Nest (5) Asthma (2), Children's fatigue (5)
Numididae    
Numida meleagris Linnaeus, 1758 – Helmeted Guineafowl, "Guiné" 1 Blood mixed with sugar (1) Pertussis
Phasianidae    
Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) – chicken, "Galinha preta" 6 Fat (1, 4) Renal calculus, headache, sore throat, nasal congestion (1), fever (4), general swelling (1)
Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 – Common Peafowl, Pavão 1 Feathers (5) Fatigue (5)
Struthionidae    
Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1766 – Common Ostrich, "Avestruz" 1 Toasted egg shells (4) Osteoporosis
Tinamidae    
Nothura maculosa cearensis Naumburg, 1932 – Spotted Nothura, "Codorniz" 1 Feathers (10) Effusion
Mammals    
Bovidae    
Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 – Domestic cattle, "Boi" 1 Marrow (8) Removal of thorns
Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758 – Sheep, "Carneiro" 5 Fat (1), Suet (1), Horn (18) Articulation problems, pits, pains, forces the child to speak, to assist children who take longer than usual to start speaking (18), rheumatism, "water in the knee"
Canidae    
Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) – Crab-eating Fox, "Raposa" 1 Fat(7) Back ache, osteoporosis
Caviidae    
Kerodon rupestris (Wied-Neuwied, 1820) – Rock cavy, "Mocó" 1 Fat(1), Manure(7) "Tired sight" (1), Effusion (7)
Dasypodidae    
Euphractus sexcinctu s (Linnaeus, 1758) – Six-banded Armadillo, "Tatu-peba" 1 Tail (beliefs) (9) Deafness
Equidae    
Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 – Donkey, "burro" 1 Hoof (18) Avoid pregnancy
Erethizontidae    
Coendou prehensilis (Linnaeus, 1758) – Brazilian porcupine, "Espinho de Gandú", "Porco-espinho" 1 Pine (5) Epilepsy
Mephitidae    
Conepatus semistriatus (Boddaert, 1785) – Striped hog-nosed skunk, "Ticaca" 2 Fat (2), meat (2) Asthma, rheumatism, nervous disturbances
  1. Legend: (1) Rubbed on the affected area; (2) ingestion of the roasted animal (or parts of it); (3) a beverage ("lambedor") prepared by mixing medicinal plants with honey; (4) ingestion; (5) tea; (6) beverage ('energetic drink') obtained by mixing 1 egg of Anas platyrhynchos, 1 pinch of cinnamon, 4 spoon-fulls of Uruçú honey (a species of stingless bee), and 1 cup of guarana. The drink should be consumed during 9 days; (7) Mixed with coffee; (8) Put inside half of a bell pepper and then placed on the area to be treated; (9) Scratch the ear with an armadillo tail; (10) This material is prepared by mixing feathers with the cupira wax to be used as incense that will emit "medicinal" odors; (11) Similar to the item 10, but the incense is made only with honey; (12) a food to be ingested is prepared from the toasted animal together with white onions and "juá" fruit (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart.); (13) Leather from Caiman latirostris (Daudin, 1801) is mixed with the fat of Mesoclemmys tuberculata (Luederwaldt, 1926) and applied on the offended area; (14) Extracted from the poison glands, and 1 teaspoon is taken (approximately 5 ml) everyday in the morning; (15) It is believed that the feather quill (calamus) toasted together with the animal's liver and then eaten will inhibit the consumption of alcoholic beverages; (16) Mixed with the coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) and applied to the affected area; (17) Toasted and macerated in order to produce a "powder" to be mixed with honey (of any bee) and ingested; (18) The rasps should be ingested; (19) Tea made from a sea-horse together with lavender (a medicinal plant); (20) Local belief that asthma can be cured by letting the patient's left-over food be eaten by a bird.