Effects of TXL on PA induced ROS production in endothelial cells. A: Endothelial cells were treated with different doses of PA (0, 0.3 and 0.5 mM) with or without TXL preconditioning. Treated cells were incubated with oxidant-sensitive fluorogenic probe CM-H2DCFDA for the detection of ROS. The stained cells were visualized under fluorescence microscope (magnification × 200). Brightfield images were also taken for comparison. B: Effect of TXL (0, 10, 50 and 100 (g/ml) on protein expression of Txnip and Trx by Western blot. Beta-actin was used as a loading control.