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Table 3 The larvicidal potentiality (mean mortality ± standard error) of different concentrations of chloroform:methanol (1:1, v/v) extract of the green berries of S. villosum and a synthetic insecticide, Malathion, on first and fourth instars larvae of S. aegypti. For first instar larvae: t = 2.07NS, 3.14*, 7.56* (between 15 and 10 ppm at 24, 48 and 72 hours); t = 5.2*, 26.62*, 13.99* (between 15 and 5 ppm at 24, 48 and 72 hours). For fourth instar larvae: t = 2NS, 1.99NS, 0.91NS (between 15 and 10 ppm at 24, 48 and 72 hours); t = 1.73NS, 1.89NS, 1.82NS (between 15 and 5 ppm at 24, 48 and 72 hours). * denotes significant (p < 0.05); NS, not significant (p > 0.05). Table value = 2.92 at five degrees of freedom. M, mortality (%); SE, standard error.

From: Mosquito larvicidal activities of Solanum villosum berry extract against the dengue vector Stegomyia aegypti

Instars of mosquito larvae Concentrations (ppm) Period of exposure (hours)
   24 48 72
First 15 60 ± 1.92 66.67 ± 5.67 70 ± 2.93
  10 40 ± 5.57 43.33 ± 3.84 46.66 ± 3.84
  5 40 ± 5.57 40 ± 5.67 53.33 ± 1.92
  Malathion (5 ppm) 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00
Fourth 15 40 ± 1.92 43.33 ± 3.84 46.66 ± 5.57
  10 33.33 ± 3.84 40 ± 1.92 43.33 ± 5.56
  5 30 ± 5.57 33.33 ± 2.93 36.67 ± 2.84
  Malathion (5 ppm) 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00 100 ± 0.00