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Table 1 A comparison of CAM therapy users and non user (The sample consists of 908 subjects taking chronic opioids)

From: CAM therapies among primary care patients using opioid therapy for chronic pain

  CAM user past 12 months No CAM Total
  n = 404 n = 504 n = 908
Age-Mean 46.6** 50.0** 48.5
Gender, Female 78.6** 61.8** 69.3
Race-White or Caucasian (see footnote 1) 80.9 71.2 75.5
   Black or African American 18.4 26.8 23.1
   Native American 0.5 1.0 0.8
   Hispanic 0.3 1.0 0.7
Education, Mean years (see footnote 2) 13.6** 12.7** 13.1
Education, 12 years or less, % 46.0 62.1 54.9
   >12 and <16 years, % 29.2 23.4 26.0
   16 or more years, % 24.8 14.5 19.1
Employment-Fulltime or part time 49.6* 35.7* 42.0
   Student 1.0 1.0 1.0
   Disability 32.3** 45.6** 39.7
   Unemployed, looking for work 11.9 10.3 11.0
Marital Status-Married 44.2 41.9 42.9
   Widowed 3.5 7.1 5.5
   Separated or Divorced 32.0 31.4 31.6
   Never Married 20.4 19.6 20.0
Opioids Utilization-Daily 86.6 89.3 88.1
   10–29 days per month 13.4 10.7 11.9
   Mean dose of Opioid's per day (footnote 3) 94.1 mg 90.4 mg 92 mg
Opioid addiction (DSM-IV 30 day criteria) 3.6% 3.2% 3.4%
Positive Toxicology test for illicit drugs 21.4% 24.1% 22.1%
Pain severity average daily pain (1–10 scale) 4.83 4.77 4.8
Monthly Employment Income, Mean $845** $550** $681
Total Monthly Income, Mean $1636** $1322** $1461
RAND SF-36 Physical Composite Score 33.5 32.7 33.1
RAND SF-36 Mental Composite Score 46.5* 49.7* 48.3
Primary Pain Site,    
   Lower back 34.9* 41.3* 38.4
   Headache 12.9** 7.5** 9.9
   Multiple sites 10.6** 5.9** 8.0
   Knee 5.9 6.9 6.5
   Neck/upper back 9.2** 5.0** 6.8
   Leg 5.0 6.9 6.1
   Foot and ankle 3.5* 7.1* 5.5
   Shoulder 4.7 4.6 4.6
   Hip 4.7 4.4 4.5
   Abdominal 3.5 5.2 4.4
  1. *p < .05, **p < .01
  2. 1. Using Chi square analysis Caucasians were more likely to use CAM therapy than African Americans. p < 0.01.
  3. 2. Using Chi square analysis subjects who utilized CAM therapy were more likely to have attended college than non CAM users. p < 0.01.
  4. 3. Opioids utilized by the chronic pain patients in the sampe (i.e. oxycodone, hydrocodone, methadone, fentanyl, meperidine, codeine) were converted to morphine equivalent doses using standard equivalency tables.