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Table 4 Experiment A: Blood edema and oral administration

From: Rat models of acute inflammation: a randomized controlled study on the effects of homeopathic remedies

Drug Paw volume increase over time (ml ± SD) and effect (% of negative control)
  1 hr   2 hr   3 hr   5 hr  
Saline 0.60 ± 0.12   0.63 ± 0.11   0.55 ± 0.15   0.36 ± 0.13  
Arnica D4 0.58 ± 0.08 -5 0.61 ± 0.08 -4 0.52 ± 0.11 -5 0.38 ± 0.11 7
Apis D4 0.55 ± 0.08 -8 0.66 ± 0.08 4 0.55 ± 0.15 0 0.35 ± 0.13 -1
Atropa D4 0.57 ± 0.08 -6 0.63 ± 0.11 -1 0.54 ± 0.15 -2 0.33 ± 0.11 -7
Hamamelis D4 0.57 ± 0.07 -6 0.62 ± 0.08 -2 0.50 ± 0.13 -9 0.31 ± 0.10 -12
Lachesis D6 0.55 ± 0.14 -10 0.63 ± 0.11 -1 0.50 ± 0.15 -9 0.31 ± 0.12 -13
Phosphorus D6 0.54 ± 0.08 -11 0.62 ± 0.09 -2 0.53 ± 0.12 -4 0.33 ± 0.09 -7
Indomethacin i.m. 0.51 ± 0.10 -16 0.46 ± 0.10 -27 0.36 ± 0.12 -35 0.22 ± 0.10 -39
  1. ANOVA results. Treatment: F(7,135) = 4.40, p = 0.0002; Time: F(3,405) = 535.25, p < 0.0001; Treatment × time (F(21,405) = 2.66, p = 0.0004.
  2. Bold characters denote significant comparisons (by Student t test) vs. Saline group corresponding for time since edema induction.