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Table 3 Experiment A: Carrageenan edema and administration by sub plantar injection

From: Rat models of acute inflammation: a randomized controlled study on the effects of homeopathic remedies

Drug Paw volume increase over time (ml ± SD) and effect (% of negative control)
  1 hr   3 hr   5 hr   7 hr  
Saline 0.63 ± 0.09   0.92 ± 0.14   0.84 ± 0.13   0.81 ± 0.14  
Arnica D4 0.59 ± 0.15 -7 0.90 ± 0.14 -2 0.86 ± 0.15 3 0.74 ± 0.15 -8
Apis D4 0.57 ± 0.08 -10 0.83 ± 0.14 -10 0.80 ± 0.13 -5 0.67 ± 0.12 -17
Atropa D4 0.61 ± 0.09 -4 0.96 ± 0.09 4 0.81 ± 0.10 -3 0.74 ± 0.15 -9
Hamamelis D4 0.62 ± 0.13 -3 0.95 ± 0.15 3 0.87 ± 0.17 5 0.69 ± 0.12 -15
Lachesis D6 0.64 ± 0.16 1 0.86 ± 0.22 -7 0.85 ± 0.20 2 0.81 ± 0.12 0
Phosphorus D6 0.59 ± 0.09 -8 0.94 ± 0.13 2 0.88 ± 0.16 6 0.74 ± 0.13 -9
Indomethacin i.m. 0.54 ± 0.12 -14 0.69 ± 0.12 -25 0.63 ± 0.11 -25 0.49 ± 0.05 -40
  1. ANOVA results. Treatment: F(7,86) = 8.55, p < 0.0001; Time: F(3,258) = 221.19, p < 0.0001; Treatment × time: F(21,258) = 3.18, p < 0.0001.
  2. Bold characters denote significant comparisons (by Student t test) vs. Saline group corresponding for time since edema induction.