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Table 2 Experiment A: Carrageenan edema and oral administration

From: Rat models of acute inflammation: a randomized controlled study on the effects of homeopathic remedies

Drug Paw volume increase over time (ml ± SD) and effect (% of negative control)
  1 hr   3 hr   5 hr   7 hr  
Saline 0.57 ± 0.14   0.98 ± 0.13   0.93 ± 0.14   0.79 ± 0.14  
Arnica D4 0.46 ± 0.12 -18 0.98 ± 0.14 0 0.85 ± 0.12 -8 0.72 ± 0.11 -9
Apis D4 0.42 ± 0.12 -26 0.90 ± 0.15 -8 0.77 ± 0.14 -17 0.65 ± 0.15 -18
Atropa D4 0.44 ± 0.09 -22 0.94 ± 0.16 -4 0.80 ± 0.18 -14 0.73 ± 0.17 -7
Hamamelis D4 0.49 ± 0.11 -14 0.88 ± 0.14 -10 0.78 ± 0.17 -16 0.68 ± 0.14 -14
Lachesis D6 0.41 ± 0.10 -28 0.87 ± 0.18 -11 0.81 ± 0.17 -12 0.62 ± 0.18 -21
Phosphorus D6 0.41 ± 0.13 -28 0.86 ± 0.14 -12 0.78 ± 0.13 -16 0.65 ± 0.11 -18
Indomethacin i.m. 0.38 ± 0.14 -34 0.63 ± 0.18 -36 0.59 ± 0.18 -36 0.49 ± 0.18 -38
  1. ANOVA results. Treatment: F(7,136) = 8.38, p < 0.0001; Time: F(3,408) = 674.23, p < 0.0001; Treatment × time: F(21,408) = 3.65, p < 0.0001.
  2. Bold characters denote significant comparisons (by Student t test) vs. Saline group corresponding for time since edema induction.