The effect of needle puncture (NP) and electro-acupuncture (EA) on mucociliary transport velocity (MTV) in anesthetized quails. Values are expressed as percentages of the respective pre-application values for five animals. Each point and vertical bar represent the mean value and S.E. The electro-stimulator delivers square wave pulse of 0.3 ms pulse width, with constant current output in 2 mA. The frequency is set in 100 Hz. EA stimulation is set for 60 minutes, starting 15 minutes after MTV measurement. ○: Control, △: NP to Zhongfu and Tiantu, □: EA to Zhongfu and Tiantu (EA1), ●: EA to Liangmen (EA2). *: P < 0.05, statistically significant difference from the control value (ANOVA).