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Table 3 Antimicrobial activity of 21 essential oils against P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa and E. coli using disc diffusion method

From: In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

Oil Name P. vulgaris P. aeruginosa E. coli
Concentration 1:1 1:5 1:10 1:20 1:1 1:5 1:10 1:20 1:1 1:5 1:10 1:20
Aniseed oil - - - - - - - - - - - -
Calamus oil 11.1 ± 0.7gh 9.2 ± 0.5h - - 13.8 ± 0.5ef 12.8 ± 0.4f 9.2 ± 0.7 d 8.3 ± 0.5 d - - - -
Camphor oil 8.8 ± 0.7 hi - - - 10 ± 0.5gh - - - 8.8 ± 1d - - -
Cedar wood 14.1 ± 1.1f 12.9 ± 0.5g 8.2 ± 0.5f - 15.6 ± 0.5de 14.1 ± 0.9ef 8.23 ± 0.5d - - - - -
Cinnamon oil 29.4 ± 0.5a 27 ± 0a 18.6 ± 1.52a 14.1 ± 0.4b 33.3 ± 1.6a 32.2 ± 0.5a 24.4 ± 0.5a 21 ± 0a 29.8 ± 0.7a 26 ± 1a 23.8 ± 1a 21 ± 0.2a
Citronella oil 19.5 ± 0.5cd 11.3 ± 0.7g - - 12.1 ± 0.5fg 10.4 ± 0.5g - - - - - -
Clove oil 20.1 ± 1c 18.2 ± 0.5d 11.8 ± 0.5d 8 ± 0e 17.4 ± 0.7d 15.5 ± 0.2e 8.5 ± 0.5d - 17.4 ± 2c 15.1 ± 0.5c 10.8 ± 0.5e 8 ± 0c
Eucalyptus oil - - - - - - - - 8.5 ± 1d - - -
Geranium oil 19 ± 0.2de 14.6 ± 0.2e 11 ± 1.5ef 8.3 ± 0e 21.5 ± 0.2c 19.2 ± 1.2d 9.4 ± 0.5d - 14.1 ± 1c 10.4 ± 1d - -
Lavender 10.8 ± 0.5ghi 9.3 ± 0.5h - - 12.1 ± 0.9fg 9.9 ± 0.7g - - - - - -
Lemon oil 22.5 ± 0.5b 18.9 ± 0.5d 15.5 ± 0.5c 10.7 ± 0.2d 21.4 ± 1.1c 19.9 ± 0.7cd 9.1 ± 0.2d - 21.6 ± 0.5b 18.9 ± 0.5b 10.6 ± 0.2e -
Lemongrass oil 14.6 ± 0.7f 12.1 ± 0.2g 9.5 ± 0.5ef - 23.4 ± 1c 19.6 ± 0.5d 9.1 ± 0.5d - - - - -
Lime oil 27.8 ± 0.5a 24 ± 0b 17.9 ± 0.1ab 13 ± 1c 25.5 ± 1b 23.5 ± 0.5b 13.6 ± 0.7c 9.3 ± 0.8c 22.7 ± 0.5b 18.9 ± 1b 15.6 ± 0.5c 17.6 ± 1.5b
Nutmeg 14.5 ± 0.7f 11.9 ± 0.2g 8 ± 0 f - 15.5 ± 0.5de 12.9 ± 1f - - - - - -
Orange oil 23.7 ± 0.7b 22.2 ± 0.7 c 16.5 ± 0.2bc 10.7 ± 0.5d 21.6 ± 0.2c 18.8 ± 0.2d 9.4 ± 0.5d - 22.9 ± 0.5b 19.4 ± 0.7b 12.4 ± 0.2d -
Palmarosa oil 19 ± 0cd 15.8 ± 0.2 e 9.9 ± 0.2 def - 14.4 ± 0.5ef 13.2 ± 0.5ef 9.2 ± 0.2d - 8.2 ± 0.5d - - -
Peppermint oil 8.5 ± 0.2i - - - 13.4 ± .52ef 11.2 ± 0.8g - - - - - -
Rosemary oil 17.4 ± 1cd 15.9 ± 0.5ef 9.7 ± 0de - 23.4 ± 0.2c 21.9 ± 0.5c 14.5 ± 0.5b 8.3 ± 0.5d 17.5 ± 1c 15.1 ± 0.7c 9.1 ± 0.2f -
Basil oil 8.9 ± 0.7ghi - - - 8.23 ± 0.5h - - - 10.5 ± 0.5d 8.2 ± 0.5e - -
Vetiver oil 11.5 ± 0.5g 10.3 ± 0.2 11.4 ± 0.5de - 13.5 ± 0.5ef 11.7 ± 0.5g 8.2 ± 0.2d - - - - -
Wintergreen 15.8 ± 0.7ef 14.8 ± 0.5 f 9.5 ± 1 def - 10.2 - - - 8.9 ± 1d - - -
Streptomycin** 18.4 ± 0.7     16.4 ± 0.2     21.2 ± 0.1    
Vehicle control -     -     -    
  1. ** Streptomycin disc (25 μg) as a positive reference standard; Values are mean inhibition zone(mm) ± S.D of three replicates
  2. Means within a column followed by different letters are statistically significant by tukey's test at p = 0.05; - no activity.