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Table 2 Antimicrobial activity of 21 essential oils against S. aureus, B. subtilis and K. pneumoniae using disc diffusion method

From: In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

Oil Name S. aureus B. subtilis K. pneumoniae
Concentration 1:1 1:5 1:10 1:20 1:1 1:5 1:10 1:20 1:1 1:5 1:10 1:20
Aniseed oil - - - - 12.1 ± 1.0klm 10.8 ± 0.2ij - - - - - -
Calamus oil - - - - 17.9 ± 0.9def 14.7 ± 0.5cd 12.6 ± 0.5 c 11.3 ± 1.2d - - - -
Camphor oil - - - - - - - - 8.5 ± 0.5e - - -
Cedar wood - - - - 13.4 ± 0.5jkl 12.2 ± 0.5ghi 99 ± 0fg - - - - -
Cinnamon oil 20.8 ± 0.5 a 18.7 ± 0.2a 14.8 ± 0.2b 13.7 ± 0.28b 29.9 ± 0.7 a 27.8 ± 1.1 a 24.1 ± 1.1 a 22.8 ± 0.2b 27.5 ± 0.5a 23.5 ± 0.5a 20.9 ± 0.2a 18.6 ± 0.5a
Citronella oil 15.8 ± 0.3bc 10.3 ± 0.5de - - 14.6 ± 0.5ij 12.5 ± 0.5ghi 10.3 ± 0.5de 9.3 ± 0.5ef - - - -
Clove oil 16.3 ± 0.5 b 14.0 ± 0bc 8.1 ± 1.1d 9.8 ± 0.57c 14.5 ± 0.2hij 13.1 ± 0.2ef 10.1 ± 1.0def 8.9 ± 0.2f 16.2 ± 0.5c 14.4 ± 0.5b 8.4 ± 0.5c -
Eucalyptus oil - - - - - - - - - - - -
Geranium oil 10.4 ± 0.5e 8.9 ± 0.2e - - 17.2 ± 0.2defg 14.7 ± 0.5cde - - 10.8 ± 0.2d 9 ± 0c - -
Lavender - - - - 12.5 ± 0.4jk 11.1 ± 0.2hi - - - - - -
Lemon oil 17.5 ± 1.1b 14.5 ± 0.2b 8.3 ± 0.2d - 16.9 ± 0.2efgh 14.5 ± 0.5cdef 8.9 ± 0.5 g - 16.5 ± 0.5c 15.3 ± 1.1b 8.7 ± 0.5c -
Lemongrass oil 11.4 ± 1.0 de 8.9 ± 0.2e - - 16.7 ± 0.5fghi 15.1 ± 0.7 c 8.9 ± 1.0fg - 8.3 ± 0.5e - - -
Lime oil 14.2 ± 0.5cd 12.7 ± .2bcd 10.3 ± 0. 9 ± 0.00c 23.9 ± 1.1 c 20.8 ± 0.7 b 15.8 ± 0.2 b 14.1 ± 1.1c 16.1 ± 1.1c 14.6 ± 0.5b 12.9 ± 0.5b 12.6 ± 0.5b
Nutmeg 11.7 ± 0.8de 9.1 ± 0.2e - - 11.5 ± 0.5mn 10.9 ± 0.2hij - - - - - -
Orange oil 12.8 ± 0.2cd 10.6 ± 0.2cde - - 18.6 ± 0.8de 15.7 ± 1.2 c 9.4 ± 0.5efg 10.6 ± .5e 11.9 ± 0.7d 9.31.1c - -
Palmarosa oil 12.5 ± 0.2cd 10.9 ± 0.5de 8 ± 0d - 15.4 ± 0.5ghi 14.2 ± 1cdef 12.5 ± 0.4 c 11.3 ± 0.5d - - - -
Peppermint oil 8.1 ± 0.5f - - - 10.6 ± 0.5mn 8.6 ± 0.4k - - - - - -
Rosemary oil 12.5 ± 1d 10.6 ± 1.0e 8.6 ± 0.2d - 14.7 ± 1hi 12.8 ± 0.5efg 11.2 ± 0.5cd 8.9 ± 0.2f 11.9 ± 0.5d 9.9 ± 0.7c - -
Basil oil 10.3 ± 0.5e 8.3 ± 0.5e - - - - - - - - - -
Vetiver oil - - - - 18.9 ± 0.9 d 15.6 ± 0.5c 12.8 ± 0.2 c 11.6 ± 0.7d - - - -
Wintergreen 8.7 ± 0.51f - - - 9.9 ± 0.5 n 9.1 ± 0.1jk - - - - - -
Streptomycin** 20.9 ± 0.5     26.9 ± 0.5     20.9 ± 0.9    
Vehicle control -     -     -    
  1. ** Streptomycin disc (25 μg) as a positive reference standard; Values are mean inhibition zone (mm) ± S.D of three replicates
  2. Means within a column followed by different letters are statistically significant by tukey's test at p = 0.05; - no activity.