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Table 2 Economic outcomes to include in economic evaluation

From: Is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) cost-effective? a systematic review

Type of Cost Examples Perspectives in Which This Cost is Included
Direct costs: Medical Intervention costs:
Practitioner fees
Diagnostic costs
Therapy costs
Service costs:
Facilities and equipment, including hospitalization or clinic/office costs Ancillary staff
Portion paid by health plan included in institutional perspective
Portion paid by patient included in individual perspective
All included in societal perspective
Direct costs: Non-medical Transportation costs
Time off work for appointments/hospitalization
Usually all paid by the patient, so often included in individual perspective
All included in societal perspective
Indirect costs Lost work productivity during recuperation
Lost leisure time
Child care costs
Costs to care givers
Usually all paid by the patient, so often included in individual perspective
All included in societal perspective
Intangible costs Pain
Suffering
Grief
Not usually included as costs; instead, may be included in humanistic outcomes in cost-utility analysis
  1. Summarized from similar tables in other references [1, 20, 22].