1.0) was observed (P = 0.162). In a formal study (28 experiments), a similar trend was observed, with Qigong-treated samples showing on average more colony formation than sham samples (P = 0.036). In a replication study (60 experiments), no significant difference between Qigong-treated samples and sham samples was observed (P = 0.465). Conclusion We observed an apparent increase in the proliferation of cultured cells following external Qigong treatment by practitioners under strictly controlled conditions, but we did not observe this effect in a replication study. These results suggest the need for more controlled and thorough investigation of external Qigong before scientific validation is claimed."/>
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Table 1 Summary of study results

From: In vitro test of external Qigong

Experiment No. of Qigong Practitioners No. of Exps. Mean* CFE Ratio St Dev* t-statistic 2-sided p
Qigong/Sham       
Pilot study 3 4 1.041 0.046 1.845 0.162
Formal study 9 14 1.099 0.167 2.333 0.036
Replication 8 30 1.070 0.534 0.740 0.465
Pooled data 18 48 1.076 0.440 1.238 0.222
Sham/Sham       
Pilot study 0 4 0.966 0.126 -0.526 0.635
Formal study 0 14 1.037 0.155 0.905 0.382
Replication 0 30 0.955 0.489 -0.491 0.627
Pooled data 0 48 0.979 0.412 -0.347 0.730
  1. *Mean and standard deviation based on logarithmic values.