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Table 1 Showing mean ± SE of AST and ALT activities and reduced glutathione content in blood and liver of different treatment groups of mice at different time intervals.

From: Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album, on arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

   Time Intervals
Tissue Series 24 h 48 h 72 h 7 d 15 d 30 d
ALT activity (μM/mg protein/min)
Liver        
  Dw 0.244 ± 0.073 0.293 ± 0.034 0.318 ± 0.030 0.339 ± 0.085 0.328 ± 0.067 0.321 ± 0.065
  As 0.280 ± 0.053 0.299 ± 0.048 0.344 ± 0.051 0.640 ± 0.024b 0.689 ± 0.065b 0.643 ± 0.063b
  As+Ars Alb-30 0.328 ± 0.077 0.217 ± 0.044 0.319 ± 0.084 0.466 ± 0.039b 0.473 ± 0.067a 0.322 ± 0.080a
  As+Ars Alb-200 0.257 ± 0.093 0.264 ± 0.044 0.327 ± 0.068 0.518 ± 0.062 0.306 ± 0.056b 0.277 ± 0.050a
  As+A-30 0.653 ± 0.113 0.318 ± 0.060 0.399 ± 0.042 0.599 ± 0.109b 0.644 ± 0.100 0.650 ± 0.091
  As+A-200 0.511 ± 0.079 0.345 ± 0.045 0.396 ± 0.064 0.610 ± 0.078 0.660 ± 0.074 0.767 ± 0.096
Blood Dw 0.715 ± 0.032 0.740 ± 0.093 0.987 ± 0.081 0.766 ± 0.062 0.639 ± 0.034 0.736 ± 0.066
  As 0.651 ± 0.097 0.910 ± 0.065 1.311 ± 0.109a 1.004 ± 0.076a 0.950 ± 0.079b 1.003 ± 0.059a
  As+Ars Alb-30 0.741 ± 0.069 0.630 ± 0.019 0.852 ± 0.094a 0.878 ± 0.088 0.307 ± 0.044c 0.273 ± 0.044c
  As+Ars Alb-200 0.538 ± 0.066 0.521 ± 0.050 1.049 ± 0.093 0.875 ± 0.070 0.571 ± 0.082a 0.409 ± 0.061c
  As+A-30 1.209 ± 0.133 0.938 ± 0.098 1.617 ± 0.097 0.939 ± 0.063b 1.253 ± 0.106 0.902 ± 0.063
  As+A-200 0.564 ± 0.034 1.002 ± 0.103 1.522 ± 0.097 0.928 ± 0.107 1.106 ± 0.194 1.212 ± 0.121
AST activity (μM/mg protein/min)
Liver        
  Dw 0.288 ± 0.038 0.214 ± 0.033 0.233 ± 0.042 0.259 ± 0.039 0.272 ± 0.016 0.257 ± 0.018
  As 0.289 ± 0.024 0.282 ± 0.026 0.236 ± 0.018 0.433 ± 0.043a 0.341 ± 0.024a 0.319 ± 0.019a
  As+Ars Alb-30 0.241 ± 0.023 0.224 ± 0.037 0.215 ± 0.022 0.222 ± 0.018b 0.308 ± 0.045 0.216 ± 0.044
  As+Ars Alb-200 0.250 ± 0.043 0.278 ± 0.046 0.213 ± 0.037 0.241 ± 0.011b 0.194 ± 0.031b 0.088 ± 0.009c
  As+A-30 0.255 ± 0.037 0.301 ± 0.033 0.276 ± 0.045 0.327 ± 0.023a 0.372 ± 0.047a 0.239 ± 0.058
  As+A-200 0.333 ± 0.062 0.285 ± 0.026 0.243 ± 0.034 0.363 ± 0.041 0.339 ± 0.040 0.298 ± 0.036
Blood        
  Dw 0.199 ± 0.023 0.221 ± 0.016 0.241 ± 0.014 0.239 ± 0.016 0.243 ± 0.016 0.243 ± 0.009
  As 0.309 ± 0.018b 0.282 ± 0.020a 0.424 ± 0.021c 0.294 ± 0.013a 0.530 ± 0.053c 0.383 ± 0.018c
  As+Ars Alb-30 0.247 ± 0.025 0.204 ± 0.015a 0.204 ± 0.004c 0.194 ± 0.026b 0.304 ± 0.029b 0.287 ± 0.026a
  As+Ars Alb-200 0.263 ± 0.015 0.210 ± 0.009a 0.249 ± 0.020c 0.200 ± 0.015a 0.268 ± 0.027b 0.229 ± 0.018c
  As+A-30 0.385 ± 0.026a 0.311 ± 0.041 0.426 ± 0.037 0.387 ± 0.031 0.549 ± 0.047 0.498 ± 0.036a
  As+A-200 0.389 ± 0.021a 0.319 ± 0.028 0.478 ± 0.041 0.293 ± 0.031 0.542 ± 0.061 0.460 ± 0.033
GSH Content (μM/mg of Liver)
Liver        
  Dw 1.383 ± 0.064 1.240 ± 0.051 1.162 ± 0.072 1.359 ± 0.072 1.376 ± 0.111 1.238 ± 0.110
  As 1.447 ± 0.066 1.061 ± 0.035a 0.978 ± 0.073 0.757 ± 0.033c 0.782 ± 0.092b 0.615 ± 0.098b
  As+Ars Alb-30 1.483 ± 0.086 1.377 ± 0.065b 1.344 ± 0.066b 1.207 ± 0.122b 1.196 ± 0.109a 1.055 ± 0.045b
  As+Ars Alb-200 1.580 ± 0.105 1.145 ± 0.084 1.230 ± 0.093 1.173 ± 0.108b 1.265 ± 0.084b 1.187 ± 0.077b
  As+A-30 1.360 ± 0.119 0.817 ± 0.082a 0.818 ± 0.048 0.832 ± 0.115b 0.697 ± 0.116 0.474 ± 0.045
  As+A-200 1.436 ± 0.109 0.924 ± 0.117 0.937 ± 0.100 0.758 ± 0.074 0.718 ± 0.091 0.692 ± 0.035
GSH Content (nM/ml of Blood)
Blood        
  Dw 296.779 ± 6.948 274.076 ± 9.037 284.093 ± 6.839 275.882 ± 8.284 274.503 ± 7.090 241.913 ± 12.136
  As 275.882 ± 11.433 245.502 ± 7.214a 265.208 ± 11.621 237.456 ± 7.442b 142.375 ± 16.466c 110.200 ± 7.47c
  As+Ars Alb-30 303.881 ± 9.855 300.925 ± 14.232b 286.556 ± 16.079 236.388 ± 15.958 284.011 ± 18.742c 182.191 ± 14.149c
  As+Ars Alb-200 281.630 ± 11.363 226.324 ± 13.620 274.651 ± 14.291 299.037 ± 17.341a 313.898 ± 12.932c 286.967 ± 7.691b
  As+A-30 240.248 ± 17.659 236.635 ± 3.915 235.239 ± 10.893 102.569 ± 6.585b 104.811 ± 6.347 87.281 ± 9.834
  As+A-200 259.953 ± 8.857 274.856 ± 14.680 181.869 ± 12.780c 153.213 ± 17.617b 146.809 ± 13.915 106.740 ± 6.259
  1. Superscript on the value of As series show level of significance in t-test between Dw and As and that on other series show the level of significance of t-test between As and that series. a = p < 0.05, b = p < 0.01, c = p < 0.001