Cytotoxic effect of M. koenigii and A. nilagirica extracts on mouse macrophage. RAW264.7 (1 × 104 cells/ml) in DMEM were grown in a 96 well plate at 37°C, 5% CO2 for 24 hours, followed by treatment with different concentrations of M. koenigii (A) and A. nilagirica (B) extracts for another 24 hours. Untreated cells were used as control. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay, M. koenigii extract showed more cytotoxic effect as compared to A. nilagirica ethanol extract. (C) Monolayer images of RAW264.7 cells after treatment with M. koenigii and A. nilagirica extacts. (D,E) Effect of M. koenigii and A. nilagirica extracts on DNA damage of mouse macrophage. RAW264.7 cells were treated with M. koenigii (100 μg/ml) and A. nilagirica (300 μg/ml) for 12 h. The effect on DNA damage (D) and nuclear fragmentation (E) was studied by comet assay and DAPI staining, respectively. Treatment with M. koenigii ethanol extract caused DNA damage and nucleus fragmentation in macrophages. Untreated cells were used as a control. Experiments were performed in triplicates; means ± the SD are shown. **,P ≤ 0.0005.