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Table 2 Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of determinants of any traditional healthcare use amongst those dying of HIV/AIDS in the study population 1

From: Changing use of traditional healthcare amongst those dying of HIV related disease and TB in rural South Africa from 2003 – 2011: a retrospective cohort study

     Bivariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Characteristics Category Total N (%) Odds ratio 95% CI (p value) Odds ratio 95% CI (p value)
Gender Female 1430 879 (61.47) 1 (ref)    
Male 1403 828 (59.02) 0.90 0.77 - 1.05 (0.198)   
Age at death (years) 18 - 49 1974 1194 (60.49) 1 (ref)    
50 – 65 533 325 (60.98) 1.01 0.83 - 1.24 (0.903)   
>65 326 188 (57.67) 0.88 0.69 - 1.12 (0.304)   
Country of origin 2 Mozambique 936 602 (64.32) 1 (ref)   1(ref)  
South Africa 1894 1104 (58.29) 0.77 0.65 - 0.91 (0.002) 0.72 0.60 - 0.87 (0.001)
Year of death 2003 - 2005 979 759 (77.53) 1 (ref)   1(ref)  
2006 - 2008 1067 645 (60.45) 0.44 0.36 - 0.54 (<0.001) 0.50 0.40 - 0.61 (<0.001)
2009 - 2011 787 303 (38.50) 0.18 0.15 - 0.22 (<0.001) 0.23 0.18 - 0.29 (<0.001)
Residence status Temporary 801 476 (59.43) 1 (ref)    
Permanent 1949 1187 (60.90) 1.06 0.89 - 1.26 (0.529)   
Individual education (years completed) 0 to 5 1165 744 (63.86) 1 (ref)   1(ref)  
6 to 7 361 217 (60.11) 0.84 0.66 - 1.08 (0.178) 1.06 0.81 - 1.38 (0.669)
8 to 9 332 208 (62.65) 0.94 0.72 - 1.21 (0.62) 1.24 0.93 - 1.64 (0.138)
10 to 11 360 206 (57.22) 0.75 0.59 - 0.96 (0.024) 1.10 0.84 - 1.45 (0.482)
>11 486 262 (53.91) 0.67 0.54 - 0.84 (<0.001) 0.93 0.73 - 1.19 (0.572)
Household SEP quintile 3 1 602 376 (62.46) 1 (ref)    
2 643 398 (61.90) 0.97 0.77 - 1.23 (0.815)   
3 533 320 (60.04) 0.91 0.71 - 1.16 (0.452)   
4 554 320 (57.76) 0.84 0.66 - 1.07 (0.152)   
5 473 279 (58.99) 0.86 0.67 - 1.11 (0.262)   
Road distance to nearest health centre or clinic (km) 0 - 1 907 538 (59.32) 1 (ref)   1(ref)  
1 - 3 730 466 (63.84) 1.22 0.99 - 1.50 (0.058) 1.14 0.91 - 1.42 (0.253)
>3 1196 703 (58.78) 0.98 0.81 - 1.17 (0.787) 1.03 0.84 - 1.25 (0.795)
Illness duration (months) 0 to 1 419 164 (39.14) 1 (ref)   1(ref)  
>1 to 2 401 193 (48.13) 1.43 1.07 - 1.91 (0.014) 1.31 0.97 - 1.77 (0.081)
>2 to 6 798 480 (60.15) 2.37 1.84 - 3.04 (<0.001) 2.16 1.66 - 2.80 (<0.001)
>6 to 24 847 620 (73.20) 4.24 3.28 - 5.49 (<0.001) 2.84 2.16 - 3.73 (<0.001)
>24 191 151 (79.06) 5.85 3.88 - 8.80 (<0.001) 2.79 1.81 - 4.32 (<0.001)
Prior Mortality rate in residence (deaths/1000 PYO) 0 1329 777 (58.47) 1 (ref)   1(ref)  
>0 - 10 568 347 (61.09) 1.10 0.89 - 1.35 (0.374) 1.06 0.84 - 1.32 (0.634)
>10 - 20 478 305 (63.81) 1.27 1.02 - 1.59 (0.034) 1.13 0.89 - 1.44 (0.304)
  >20 458 278 (60.70) 1.09 0.87 - 1.36 (0.472) 1.01 0.79 - 1.28 (0.956)
  1. 1The study population comprises adults (aged over 18) who died in the Agincourt sub-district between 2003 and 2011 for whom healthcare utilisation data was available.
  2. 2South Africa indicates those born in South Africa, Mozambique represents those who either inmigrated from Mozambique or were the children of fathers in-migrating from Mozambique.
  3. 3SEP (socioeconomic position) quintiles are a measure of the level of asset ownership in a household. Quintile 1 includes the households with the lowest levels of asset ownership and quintile 5 those with the highest levels.