Effects of CSE on neuroblast differentiation. PSA-NCAM immunohistochemistry in the dentate gyrus of the vehicle-treated (A, B), 40 mg/kg CSE-treated (C, D), and 100 mg/kg (E, F) CSE-treated groups. Compared with the vehicle-treated group, the CSE-treated group shows a higher number of PSA-NCAM-immunoreactive neuroblasts with well-developed dendrites. GCL: granule cell layer; ML: molecular layer; PoL: polymorphic layer. Scale bar = 50 μm (A, C, and E), 25 μm (B, D, and F). G: The number of PSA-NCAM-positive neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus of the vehicle-treated, 40 mg/kg CSE-treated, and 100 mg/kg CSE-treated groups (n = 7 per group; *P < 0.05, versus vehicle-treated group). All data are shown as the mean ± SEM.