Effects of CSE on novel object recognition test. Preference for exploring novel objects in vehicle-treated, 40 mg/kg CSE-treated, and 100 mg/kg CSE-treated mice (n = 12 per group; *P < 0.05, versus vehicle-treated group). Data are presented as the exploration time for each object (A, B, or C, where C is replaced by D on the testing day) as a percentage of the total exploration time. On the training day, the animals do not show preference to explore any particular object. On the testing day, CSE-treated mice preferentially explore the novel object D. All data are shown as % exploration ± SEM.