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Figure 1 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Figure 1

From: Valeriana officinalis root extract suppresses physical stress by electric shock and psychological stress by nociceptive stimulation-evoked responses by decreasing the ratio of monoamine neurotransmitters to their metabolites

Figure 1

Experimental protocol and schematic floor plan of the communication box (A) used in this study and effects of VE on immobilized activity in the forced swimming test (B) of control, physical stress with vehicle (PS-V) group, PS with Valerian officinalis extract (PS-VE) group, psychological stress with vehicle (PCS-V) group, and PCS with VE (PCS-VE) group ( n = 7 per group; a P < 0.05, indicating a significant difference compared to the control group; b P < 0.05, significantly different from the PS-V vs. PS-VE or PCS-V vs. PCS-VE group). Error bars indicate SEM.

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