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Table 3 Urine profile of acetaminophen metabolites at baseline and 4 weeks

From: An open label pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of Spanish black radish on the induction of phase I and phase II enzymes in healthy male subjects

Urine acetaminophen metabolites Week 0 Week 4 Difference from week 0 to week 4 P Valuea
Acetaminophen glucuronide
 Cmax(mg) 534.34 ± 100.71 553.91 ± 151.27 19.57 ± 124.28 0.661
 Tmax(h) 4.95 ± 1.54 5.26 ± 1.52 0.32 ± 1.67 0.420
 AUC(0–8 hour) (mg. h) 2842.35 ± 654.09 2803.66 ± 655.02 -38.69 ± 342.45 0.675
Acetaminophen sulfate
 Cmax(mg) 109.65 ± 27.66 128.72 ± 48.28 19.08 ± 38.37 0.030
 Tmax(h) 3.37 ± 1.34 4.21 ± 1.47 0.84 ± 1.92 0.072
 AUC(0–8 hour) (mg. h) 541.92 ± 117.29 603.26 ± 197.79 61.34 ± 166.19 0.010
Acetaminophen mercapturate
 Cmax(mg) 12.41 ± 4.81 17.23 ± 8.27 4.82 ± 9.72 0.027
 Tmax(h) 4.84 ± 1.80 4.21 ± 1.62 -0.63 ± 2.50 0.285
 AUC(0–8 hour) (mg. h) 61.56 ± 25.66 84.24 ± 35.78 22.68 ± 44.43 0.024
Unchanged acetaminophen
 Cmax(mg) 18.95 ± 11.01 20.91 ± 7.42 1.96 ± 10.97 0.151
 Tmax(h) 3.05 ± 1.81 3.89 ± 1.94 0.84 ± 2.77 0.202
 AUC(0–8 hour) (mg.h) 84.02 ± 45.36 99.33 ± 31.98 15.31 ± 45.65 0.060
  1. Cmax, Tmax and AUC0-8h of urine acetaminophen metabolites following administration of 1000 mg acetaminophen to participants at week 0 and after 4 weeks of SBR supplementation.
  2. Values are presented as Mean ± SD.
  3. aBetween group comparisons were made using t-test. Statistical comparisons for Cmax and AUC(0-8hour) were conducted using log-transformed data.
  4. Cmax = maximum concentration; Tmax = time of maximum concentration; AUC = area under the urine concentration time curve.