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Table 2 Plasma profile of acetaminophen metabolites at baseline and 4 weeks

From: An open label pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of Spanish black radish on the induction of phase I and phase II enzymes in healthy male subjects

Plasma acetaminophen metabolite Week 0 Week 4 Difference from week 0 to week 4 P Valuea
Acetaminophen glucuronide
 Cmax(μmol/L) 12.59 ± 4.12 10.82 ± 3.091 -1.77 ± 1.47 <0.001
 Tmax(h) 2.13 ± 0.46 2.55 ± 1.13 0.42 ± 1.26 0.166
 AUC(0–8 hour) (μmol. h/L) 58.05 ± 14.48 52.83 ± 14.09 -5.22 ± 6.32 <0.004
Acetaminophen sulfate
 Cmax(μmol/L) 3.20 ± 0.69 2.90 ± 0.82 -0.30 ± 0.69 0.085
 Tmax(h) 2.03 ± 0.01 2.23 ± 0.63 0.21 ± 0.63 0.169
 AUC(0–8 hour) (μmol. h/L) 8.78 ± 4.073 9.64 ± 4.02 -1.69 ± 4.07 0.126
NAPQI-GSH
 Cmax(μmol/L) 0.18 ± 0.09 0.18 ± 0.04 -0.02 ± 0.07 0.200
 Tmax(h) 2.03 ± 0.01 2.02 ± 0.01 -0.00 ± 0.02 0.682
 AUC(0–8 hour) (μmol. h/L) 0.72 ± 0.31 0.66 ± 0.22 -0.07 ± 0.22 0.336
Unchanged acetaminophen
 Cmax(μmol/L) 1.59 ± 1.65 0.79 ± 0.20 -0.79 ± 1.72 0.022
 Tmax(h) 2.87 ± 1.38 3.08 ± 1.68 0.21 ± 2.30 0.696
 AUC(0–8 hour) (μmol. h/L) 4.10 ± 2.25 2.45 ± 0.66 -1.65 ± 2.65 0.010
  1. Cmax, Tmax and AUC0-8h of plasma acetaminophen metabolites following administration of 1000 mg acetaminophen to participants at week 0 and after 4 weeks of SBR supplementation.
  2. Values are presented as Mean ± SD.
  3. aBetween group comparisons were made using t-test. Statistical comparisons for Cmax and AUC(0–8 hour) were conducted using log-transformed data.
  4. Cmax = maximum concentration; Tmax = time of maximum concentration; AUC = area under the plasma concentration time curve.