Effects of STA on NE-induced changes in α- and β-MHC mRNA expression. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated (A) α-MHC and (B) β-MHC gene expression as well as (C) β/α-MHC mRNA ratio in the presence of NE with CAR or STA for 72 hours (normalized to 18 s ribosomal RNA). The data are expressed as the mean ± SEM, n = 5. *P < 0.05 versus control, #
P < 0.05 versus NE. NE: norepinephrine, CAR: carvedilol, STA: stachydrine. MHC: myosin heavy chain.