Effects of NNAV on pulmonary index and HYP content. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of LPS once a week for 8 weeks or a single intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Mice and rats were administered saline or NNAV orally 4 days prior to LPS and BLM and continued until to the end of experiment. (A) Pulmonary index 6 h after LPS treatment. (B) Pulmonary index 8 weeks after LPS treatment. (C) Pulmonary index 8 weeks after BLM treatment. (D) HYP levels 8 weeks after LPS treatment. (E) HYP levels 8 weeks after LPS treatment. *P<0.05, **P<0.001, model group compared to control group; #P<0.05, ##P<0.001, NNAV-treated groups compared to model group. N =10 per group.