Real-time PCR Quantitation of mRNA expression level of TP53 (a), COX-2 (b), and CYP2E1 (c): control (I), DM-treated group (II), DM + VE group (III) and VE group (IV). Values represent fold increases in mRNA level over the control group. GAPDH was used as an invariant internal control for calculating mRNA-fold changes. Values are expressed as mean ± S.E. Different superscripts letters are significantly different (p < 0.05).