Hepatoprotective effects of KAOD. Serum and livers were isolated from ICR mice fed KAOD-1%, KAOD-3%, or KAOD-10% ad libitum for 11 days. (A) ALT, AST, and LDH activities in the serum from mice fed (a) KAOD-1% and injected with CCl4, (b) KAOD-3% and injected with CCl4 or (c) KAOD-10% and injected with CCl4 or olive oil were measured using commercially available kits. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, (a) n =6, (b) n =12, (c) n =7 (CCl4), n =3 (olive oil). Significant difference from AIN-93G: **p <0.01; ***p <0.001; n.s.: not significant. (B) HE-stained liver sections from mice administered with (a-1) AIN-93G with CCl4 (control for KAOD-1%), (a-2) KAOD-1% with CCl4, (b-1) AIN-93G with CCl4 (control for KAOD-3%), (b-2) KAOD-3% with CCl4, (c-1) AIN-93G with CCl4 (control for KAOD-10%), (c-2) KAOD-10% with CCl4, (c-3) AIN-93G with olive oil, or (c-4) KAOD-10% with olive oil were observed under a normal light microscope. Scale bar =100 μm.