The level of ROS after treatment were measured using DCFH-DA (A, B) or JC-1 stainings (C, D) by flow cytometry. a, control; b, 1 μΜ hederagenin; c, 2 μΜ hederagenin. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) after treatment were measured using JC-1 staining by flow cytometry. The reduced MMP indicated by a decrease in red fluorescence. The green gluorescence represents the monomeric form of JC-1. Each experiment was conducted in triplicate. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, vs. control.