Effects of DE on the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with or without DE (0, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL) and then treated with LPS (1 μg/mL). After 24 h incubation, total cellular RNA was isolated from the cells. The expression levels of (A) NF-κB, (B) TNF-α, and (C) IL-1β were quantified by real-time PCR. The expression of each gene was normalized using β-actin as an internal control. Each bar represents the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Bars within the same panel with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05).