Skip to main content

Table 1 Means (M) and standard deviations (SD) of psychological measures for participants of both groups

From: A relaxation technique enhances psychological well-being and immune parameters in elderly people from a nursing home: A randomized controlled study

Variable Group A M ± SD Mann-WhitneyU B M ± SD Mann-WhitneyU C M ± SD Mann-WhitneyU Wilcoxon’sT A vs. B Wilcoxon’sT A vs. C
    z p   z p   z p z p z p
SWLS TG 16.46 ± 5.24 -0.39 0.69 17.92 ± 3.71 -0.34 0.72 16.91 ± 4.74 -1.07 0.28 -1.53 0.12 0.00 1.00
  CG 17.80 ± 3.34    17.13 ± 5.17    18.93 ± 3.84    -0.51 0.60 -0.94 0.34
Positive Affect TG 2.85 ± 1.34 -1.85 0.06 2.54 ± 0.97 -0.19 0.84 2.73 ± 1.10 -0.62 0.53 -0.78 0.43 -0.99 0.31
  CG 2.00 ± 1.11    2.40 ± 1.24    2.40 ± 1.24    -1.22 0.22 -1.23 0.21
Negative Affect TG 3.15 ± 1.21 -1.59 0.11 2.38 ± 0.96 -0.55 0.58 3.00 ± 1.34 -0.80 0.42 -1.89 0.05 -0.36 0.71
  CG 2.36 ± 1.34    2.60 ± 1.12    2.60 ± 1.24    -0.18 0.85 -0.36 0.71
Affect: TG -0.31 ± 1.60 -0.47 0.63 0.15 ± 0.69 -0.83 0.40 -0.27 ± 0.90 -0.29 0.76 -0.99 0.32 -0.66 0.50
Hedonic balance CG -0.36 ± 1.39    -0.20 ± 1.21    -0.20 ± 1.08    -0.85 0.39 -0.55 0.58
Affect: TG 4.69 ± 1.60 -0.47 0.63 5.15 ± 0.69 -0.83 0.40 4.73 ± 0.90 -0.29 0.76 -0.99 0.32 -0.66 0.50
Standardized ABS CG 4.64 ± 1.39    4.80 ± 1.21    4.80 ± 1.08    -0.08 0.39 -0.55 0.58
NHP               
 Energy TG 1.77 ± 1.17 -0.40 0.68 2.00 ± 1.15 -0.92 0.35 1.36 ± 1.43 -0.51 0.60 -0.87 0.38 -0.96 0.33
  CG 1.53 ± 1.30    1.60 ± 1.12    1.53 ± 1.19    -0.44 0.65 0.00 1.00
 Pain TG 3.62 ± 2.90 -1.00 0.31 3.46 ± 3.10 -0.67 0.49 2.91 ± 2.51 -0.13 0.89 -0.10 0.91 -1.02 0.30
  CG 2.60 ± 2.64    2.87 ± 3.27    3.00 ± 3.16    -0.27 0.78 -0.49 0.62
 Emotional TG 4.85 ± 1.68 -2.01 0.04 3.54 ± 1.85 -0.02 0.98 3.64 ± 2.98 -0.18 0.85 -2.22 0.02 -1.79 0.07
 Reactions CG 3.53 ± 1.85    3.73 ± 2.31    3.13 ± 1.88    -0.14 0.88 -0.71 0.47
 Sleep TG 2.54 ± 1.56 -0.46 0.63 2.46 ± 1.61 -0.12 0.90 3.09 ± 1.30 -1.36 0.17 -0.58 0.56 -1.41 0.15
  CG 2.27 ± 1.67    2.53 ± 1.85    2.13 ± 1.92    -1.15 0.24 -0.43 0.66
 Social TG 1.23 ± 1.24 -0.26 0.79 0.85 ± 0.99 -0.53 0.59 0.91 ± 1.22 -0.08 0.93 -0.50 0.13 -1.29 0.19
 Isolation CG 1.33 ± 1.23    1.27 ± 1.49    1.13 ± 1.46    -0.06 0.95 -0.88 0.37
 Physical TG 4.15 ± 2.12 -0.81 0.41 4.31 ± 2.81 -1.06 0.28 3.36 ± 2.46 -0.07 0.93 -0.41 0.68 -1.93 0.05
 Mobility CG 3.67 ± 2.29    3.13 ± 2.67    3.33 ± 2.19    -1.24 0.21 -0.81 0.41
 NHP Total TG 18.15 ± 7.49 -1.08 0.27 16.62 ± 8.33 -0.43 0.66 15.27 ± 7.88 -0.39 0.69 -1.02 0.30 -1.89 0.05
  CG 14.93 ± 6.93    15.13 ± 9.78    14.27 ± 9.07    -0.11 0.90 -0.66 0.50
Benson’s Five TG 2.85 ± 1.28 -1.18 0.23 1.83 ± 1.03 -0.40 0.68 2.36 ± 1.43 -0.79 0.42 -2.04 0.04 -0.95 0.34
Symptoms CG 2.27 ± 1.53    2.00 ± 1.20    1.87 ± 1.51    -0.81 0.41 -1.11 0.26
  1. Note: Between-group comparisons (Mann–Whitney U test) at three assessment times; and within-subject analyses (Wilcoxon’s T) comparing pre-treatment assessment (A) with post-treatment assessment (B) and follow-up assessment (C). TG: Treatment Group; CG: Waitlist Control Group; M: Mean (SD: Standard Deviation); ABS: Affect Balance Scale; SWLS: Satisfaction with Life Scale; NHP: Nottingham Health Profile.
  2. Bold text: p < 0.05.