Effect of genistein (Gen) on TPA-induced cell invasion. For the invasion assays, hepatoma cell lines HepG2 (A), Huh-7, and HA22T and liver cells BNL CL2 (B) (5 × 104) were resuspended in 200 μL of DMEM and added to the upper compartment of Matrigel invasion chambers supplemented with medium and treated with 80 μM TPA with or without different concentrations of Gen. After 24-h incubation, the total number of cells on the lower surface of the insert chambers was stained with crystal violet and counted under a microscope (200× magnification). Quantification of cell invasion assay. HepG2 (C), Huh-7, HA22T cells and liver cells BNL CL2 (E) were treated with 5–40 μM or 20 μM of Gen for 24 h. Cell viability of HepG2 (D), Huh-7, HA22T and BNL CL2 cells (F) was determined by MTT assay. Results are expressed as fold invasion and presented as the total number of invasive cells in treated cells relative to untreated cells. Values represent the mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. *p < 0.01 compared to TPA-treated cells.