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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Xuan Bai Cheng Qi formula as an adjuvant treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of the syndrome type phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

  XBCQ (n = 122) Control (n = 122)
Age (SD), y 70.1 ± 9.8 70.7 ± 9.8
Body mass index (SD), kg/m2 23.36 ± 3.44 22.76 ± 3.11
Gender (male/female)   
 Male (n) % 88 (72.1%) 82 (67.2%)
 Female (n) % 34 (27.9%) 40 (32.8%)
Body temperature (°C) 36.68 ± 0.56 36.66 ± 0.58
Exacerbation   
 Frequency (times) 2.8 ± 1.28 2.6 ± 1.24
 Currently exacerbation 3.5 ± 1.36 3.5 ± 1.29
Smoking status   
 Currently smoking, n (%) 22 (18.03%) 16 (13.11%)
 Never smoked, n (%) 54 (44.26%) 52 (42.62%)
 Ever smoked, n (%) 46 (37.70%) 54 (44.26%)
 No. of packs/year 299.8 ± 170.0 337.9 ± 192.6
FEV1/FVC 55.02 ± 10.477 56.91 ± 9.592
GOLD classification   
 GOLD stage I, n (%) 10 (8.20%) 9 (7.38%)
 GOLD stage II, n (%) 56 (45.90%) 58 (47.54%)
 GOLD stage III, n (%) 47 (38.52%) 45 (36.89%)
 GOLD stage IV, n (%) 9 (7.38%) 10 (8.20%)
  1. Abbreviations: COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in one second, FVC forced vital capacity, GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, SD standard deviation, XBCQ Xuan Bai Cheng Qi.