Effect of HCE-EA on the phosphorylation of MAPKs in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. (A) Cells were pretreated with HCE-EA (25, 50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) for 2 h prior to incubation with LPS (1 μg/mL) for 30 min. Protein levels of ERK, pERK, JNK, pJNK, p38, and pp38 MAPKs were determined by Western blotting analysis. (B) The pMAPK/MAPK protein ratio in shown. Values represent the mean ± the SD (n = 3 independent experiments *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, vs. LPS alone (control)).