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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects and prevalence of herbal medicinal product use – by health related indicators

From: Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents in Germany

Study subjects Herbal medicinal product users
  N* %** n* %** 95 %CI P***
Total 17,450 100 1,055 5.8 5.3-6.3
Children's health status       
Parents-rated health status       
  Excellent 6,873 39.1 366 5.2 4.6-5.9 .002
Good 9,250 54.1 592 6.1 5.5-6.8
Fair/bad/very bad 1,102 6.7 92 7.9 6.2-10.0
CSHCN-Screener****       
  Yes 2,205 13.7 135 6.2 5.1-7.6 .629
No 13,752 86.3 857 5.9 5.4-6.5
Body mass index (BMI)       
  Underweight 1,121 7.0 80 6.3 4.8-8.2 .136
Normal 13,567 78.4 833 5.9 5.4-6.5
Overweight 2,517 14.6 130 4.8 3.8-6.0
Children's health behavior       
Sports activities       
(children aged 3–17 years only)
  Daily 2,335 16.7 89 3.7 3.0-4.7 .000
3-5 times/week 3,119 23.3 142 4.6 3.9-5.6
1-2 times/week 5,811 40.2 353 6.0 5.2-6.8
1-2 times/month 1,306 8.5 100 7.3 5.9-9.2
Never 1,691 11.3 82 4.6 3.6-5.9
Vegetable & fruit consumption       
(children aged 1–17 years only)
  Low 3,866 26.6 185 4.8 4.0-5.7 .002
Middle 7,415 47.2 455 5.9 5.2-6.7
High 4,176 26.2 288 7.0 6.1-8.0
Parental socio-economic status      
Immigration background       
  No 14,790 82.8 957 6.3 5.7-6.9 .000
Yes 2,580 17.2 93 3.5 2.8-4.2
Maternal education level       
  Primary 3,849 25.4 171 4.3 3.6-5.2 .000
Middle 7,836 40.3 510 6.4 5.6-7.2
Higher 4,838 28.5 339 6.7 6.0-7.6
Others 927 5.7 35 3.5 2.3-5.3
Paternal educationlevel       
  Primary 4,832 31.7 233 4.7 4.0-5.5 .000
Middle 5,933 28.1 401 6.5 5.6-7.5
Higher 5,100 31.3 368 7.0 6.2-7.9
Others 1,585 9.0 53 3.4 2.5-4.7
Household income per month       
  <1500 € 3,558 19.0 183 5.0 4.2-6.0 .021
1500 - <2250 € 4,469 26.6 262 5.3 4.5-6.2
2250 - <3000 € 4,354 27.2 284 6.2 5.4-7.1
> = 3000 € 3,986 27.2 267 6.6 5.8-7.5
Social status       
  Lower 4,760 27.5 234 4.7 4.0-5.5 .001
Intermediate 7,901 45.4 506 6.1 5.4-6.9
Upper 4,366 27.0 307 6.9 6.0-7.8
Parents-related health behavior      
Exclusive breastfeeding of children       
  Never 3,646 22.6 193 5.1 4.3-6.1 .010
Combined with formula milk/unclear 2,493 7.8 130 5.1 4.1-6.3
< 4 months 3,739 20.8 229 5.6 4.8-6.6
4-5 months 3,174 18.5 216 6.5 5.6-7.5
≥ 6 months 3,796 23.5 270 7.0 6.1-8.0
Children exposed to passive smoking at home       
  Daily 2,612 16.6 102 3.8 3.1-4.8 .000
Sometimes 2,236 13.1 121 5.1 4.1-6.2
Never 12,137 70.4 820 6.5 5.9-7.2
  1. *Absolute numbers, unweighted, the sum of subgroups may not be equal to the total because of missing values.
  2. **Percentages, weighted.
  3. ***P-values: derived from Rao-Scott chi-square tests for the difference of prevalence estimates within specific groups.
  4. ****Children with Special Health Care Needs.
  5. Data source: German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) 2003–2006.
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