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Table 3 Results lymphoedema and tissue induration

From: Yoga management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: a randomised controlled pilot-trial

  Group mean ± SD b-8 Between group changes 0-8    Group mean ± SD 8b-12 Between group changes 8b-12  
Variable Gp(n) Week 0 M ± SD Week 8 M ± SD ∆int-∆con 0–8 MD; (95% Cl) P(0–8) Variable Gp(n) Week 8b M ± SD Week 12 m ± SD ∆int-∆con 8b-12 MD; (95% CI) P(8b-12)
Lymphoedema L-dex (BIS)
Con (11) 6.49 ± 14.14 7.66 ± 12.64 -1.03; (-4.17 to 2.10) 0.519 Con(10) 8.68 ± 12.83 7.83 ± 13.59 2.57; (-1.04 to 6.18) 0.163
Int(12) 5.89 ± 9.07 6.03 ± 8.24 Int(9) 4.96 ± 6.40 6.67 ± 7.08  
Arm volume
Con(11) 59.89 ± 78.53 60.75 ± 80.69 -30.28; (-69.33 to 8.78) 0.129 Con(10) 67.65 ± 82.39 58.17 ± 100.42 35.20; (3.09 to 67.32) 0.032
Int(12) 101.45 ± 75.08 72.03 ± 80.77 Int(9) 60.82 ± 82.84 86.53 ± 78.29  
Tissue induration (Tonometry) Forearm affected
Con(11) 13.96 ± 3.82 14.06 ± 4.80 0-1.89; (-4.88 to 1.16) 0.227 Con(10) 13.65 ± 4.85 12.45 ± 4.36 -0.43; (-2.77 to 1.92) 0.42
Int(12) 15.78 ± 4.79 14.02 ± 3.59 Int(9) 13.87 ± 3.68 12.26 ± 2.41
Forearm non-affected
Con(11) 15.61 ± 4.17 15.81 ± 5.20 -140; (-4.59 to 1.78) 0.387 Con(10) 15.37 ± 5.27 12.66 ± 4.00 0.10; (-3.09 to 3.30) 0.95
Int(12) 15.92 ± 5.51 14.72 ± 5.42   Int(9) 14.68 ± 6.23 12.07 ± 4028
Upper arm affected
Con(11) 10.66 ± 5.57 12.54 ± 5.91 -3.20; (-641 to 0) 0.050 Con(9) 12.08 ± 6.02 8.92 ± 5.19 0.95; (-1.40 to 3.30) 0.43
Int(12) 11.10 ± 6.09 9.77 ± 3.33 Int(9) 9.63 ± 3.53 7.42 ± 4.39
Upper arm non-affected
Con(10) 10.14 ± 4.42 12.05 ± 6026 -2.88; (-5.82 to 0.06) 0.055 Con(10) 11.46 ± 6.34 7.97 ± 5.18 0.53; (-1.98 to 3.03) 0.68
Int(12) 9.88 ± 4.09 8.91 ± 3.621 Int(9) 8.17 ± 3.54 5.21 ± 3.10
Chest affected
Con(11) 6.78 ± 2.39 5.53 ± 3.41 -0.36; (-2.63 to 1.91) 0.758 Cont(10Int(9) 5.22 ± 3.43 5.76 ± 1.50 -0.60; (-2.94 to 1.73) 0.61
Int(12) 6.34 ± 2.01 4.73 ± 1.75   4.23 ± 1.14 4.17 ± 1.09
Chest non-affected
Con(11) 5.59 ± 1.84 4.76 ± 2.65 -0.34; (-2.85 to 2.17) 0.878 Con(10) 4.70 ± 2.79 6.18 ± 5.00 -1.22; (-5.33 to 2.90) 0.56
Int(12) 6.06 ± 1.87 4.90 ± 1.97 Int(9) 4.98 ± 2.23 5.25 ± 1.60
Upper back affected
Con(11) 16.17 ± 2.39 16.76 ± 4.32 0.19; (-3.77 to 4.16) 0.924 Con(10) 16.48 ± 4.45 13.21 ± 5.06 1.10; (-1.51 to 3.70) 0.41
Int(12) 16.06 ± 4.18 16.84 ± 4.82 Int(9) 15.81 ± 4.28 13.63 ± 2.930
Upper back non-affected
Con(11) 14.32 ± 3.87 15.13 ± 5.54 -1.42; (-4.85 to 2.02) 0.419 Con(10) 15.04 ± 5.79 14.43 ± 4.32 -0.48; (-3.90 to 2.95) 0.78
Int(12) 15.55 ± 4.21 15.05 ± 4.86 Int(9) 14.66 ± 5.33 13.58 ± 3.83
  1. ∆ = change; Gp = Group; M ± SD = Mean ± Standard Deviation; MD = Mean Difference; CI = Confidence Interval.
  2. n = number.
  3. Con = control group; Int = intervention group.
  4.  = non-parametic analysis; b = week 0.